Endemic diseases: definition, examples. The most terrible diseases
As you know, in the world there are millions of diseases. Most pathologies are common in all regions. Nevertheless, there is a separate group - these are endemic diseases. Such pathologies are not found everywhere, but only on a certain geographical segment. Depending on the prevalence, there are endemics, pandemics and epidemics.
To such diseases carry and terrible illnesses which have carried away millions lives. Among them: the plague, cholera, malaria. Like all endemic diseases, these infections began in a certain region, after which they spread around the world and were called epidemics. Most often, regional pathologies do not exceed the boundaries of their biogeographical province.
Endemic diseases: the concept of
Diseases covering a certain region are called endemic. By these pathologies it is understood that the source of the problem is in the environment constantly. Usually such problems are caused by problems with water, soil or air in the region. Often endemic pathologies are associated with parasites that live in certain climatic conditions( India, African countries).The most terrible diseases that raged in the Middle Ages and earlier, also initially related to regional problems. Fortunately, thanks to the development of epidemiology and medicine, they are not found in the modern world.
Causes of endemic diseases
In most cases, the etiological factors of endemic diseases are viral and parasitic infections. The carriers of these pathologies are rodents or insects. In some cases, the cause of diseases is a lack of trace elements or vitamins. Insufficiency of compounds such as iodine, calcium, vitamins C and D, causes identical disorders in the body in people living in a certain region. Also, the excess micronutrients( for example, fluorine) can lead to diseases.
Mechanism of endemia development
Each endemic disease has its own specific pathogenesis and clinical picture. First of all, it depends on the cause of the pathology. In viral and bacterial infections, the pathogen enters the bloodstream of a person and multiplies in the tissues of the body. After that, the patient begins to show symptoms. The carriers of infections in most cases are insects( mosquitoes, bugs) and rodents. In some regions, endemic diseases are associated with parasites that live in water bodies. They penetrate the human body and multiply there. In most cases, the clinical picture develops when feces infiltrate into the bloodstream.
If the cause of endemic disease is the lack of essential vitamins and trace elements, the pathogenesis of such ailments is different. Due to the fact that the body does not receive a certain substance, compensatory mechanisms begin to work. As a result, the target organs are hypertrophied, and their functioning is disturbed. The clinical picture of each pathology depends on which system is affected by the lack of a trace element or vitamin.
Linking endemic diseases with epidemiology
Endemic diseases have a direct link to the terrain on which they are distributed. The lack or excess of microelements in the region leads to an increase in the number of pathologies in this region. Examples include the following abnormalities: endemic goiter, fluorosis, tropic disease, scurvy, etc. A wide spread of infection leads to the development of pandemics and epidemics. Usually this applies to viral, parasitic and bacterial diseases.
Thus, there was a spread of plague, cholera, malaria. Since these infections are carried by rodents and insects, they have infected whole continents. Diseases specific to the African region are Congo-Crimean fever, Ebola virus, HIV.Some authors attribute alcohol and drug addiction to endemic pathologies.
The most terrible diseases: plague, cholera
The most common endemics include particularly dangerous infections that have claimed millions of lives. A pandemic of the plague takes a special place. This disease covered several continents. Widespread spread of plague is associated with the migration of rodents, which are a reservoir of infection. Infection can occur in several ways. Most often this is the transmissive pathway( through flea bites).Also, the pathogen can enter the body with food and through inhaled air( with a pulmonary form of the disease).Despite the fact that the infection is very rare at the present time, it is worth remembering that the carriers of the plague, as before, are rats. Unlike humans, rodents can be sick for a long time. If they have a chronic infection, they are contagious.
Another endemic disease that has become epidemic is cholera. Like the plague, it took millions of lives and spread almost all over the world. The causative agent of infection is the cholera vibrio. The path of transmission of the disease is most often water or alimentary. This infection still occurs in areas with poor sanitation.
Clinical picture of endemic diseases
Symptoms of endemic diseases differ from each other. With a shortage of trace elements, a certain system usually suffers. Examples are endemic goiter, the level disease. In the first case, there is a lack of iodine in the body. This leads to a decrease in the hormonal function of the thyroid gland. The result is a delay in mental and physical development. Level disease is typical for areas with low calcium content in drinking water. This is found in Transbaikalia, China and Korea. The clinical picture of pathology consists in deformation of the osteoarticular system.
Excess micronutrients can also lead to endemic diseases. An example is fluorosis. With this disease there is an accumulation of fluoride in the tooth enamel, which is manifested by dark spots and caries.
Endemic infections are especially dangerous. They are characterized by intoxication and damage to the whole organism. The plague is accompanied by the appearance of septic ulcers on the skin or the destruction of lung tissue. Cholera leads to progressive dehydration of the body.
Diagnosis of endemic diseases
Diagnosis of endemic diseases usually presents no difficulties. Since the extent of pathology is large, symptoms are quickly associated with insufficiency or excess of a certain chemical element. It is necessary to conduct an analysis of soil, water and air in the area. If it is an infectious pathology, it is very important to find its source. For each disease, it is different. For example, carriers of plague - fleas, Congo-Crimean fever - mites. Since most diseases are zooanthroponous, it is necessary to find a reservoir of infection. Most often these are rats, mice, livestock.
When infectious processes doctors take for examination biological material( feces, urine, saliva), as well as food that the patient used. A bacteriological analysis of blood and feces is carried out.
Methods to combat endemic diseases
To combat infectious endemic diseases, it is necessary to work not only physicians, but also epidemiologists. At the site of infection, a quarantine zone is formed immediately. All patients need to be hospitalized in an infectious hospital.
Persons who have been in contact with patients must undergo a screening and not leave the quarantine zone. This is necessary to avoid further spread of the infection. At the site of infection, material is taken for epidemiological investigation. Sanitation is carried out, which includes washing the room with disinfectants, airing, boiling laundry. The quarantine zone should not be accessible to a healthy population. In especially dangerous infections, medical personnel work in a special form( anti-plague suit).
Endemic disease prevention
Endemic diseases require timely prevention. In places with a lack of trace elements and vitamins, the necessary substances are added to food( iodized salt), water. Diagnosis of newborns( for phenylketonuria, hypothyroidism) is carried out. When suspected of endemic disease, biological supplements with missing vitamins and trace elements are prescribed. Also, with some pathologies, a special regimen( walks in the sun), periodic changes in climatic conditions are required.