Electrophoresis of blood serum and urine. Electrophoresis of serum proteins: norm, decoding
Plasma of human blood contains a lot of protein components. They are different in their composition, structure and mobility in a certain medium that conducts electric current. This is the basis for the separation of the total protein, which is localized in the plasma, into various protein fractions. In the electrophoresis of blood serum, the quantitative ratio of individual protein components and structures is elucidated. This is necessary to determine whether a person has various pathological phenomena, such as infections or oncology. It is the electrophoresis of serum proteins that is of great importance in the diagnosis of various diseases.
The essence of the
method For the cleavage of protein fractions, serum electrophoresis is used, the principle of which is based on the different mobility of protein components in the created electric field. This method of research is more accurate and informative, in contrast to the standard general blood test. But in this case, the electrophoresis shows only the amount of a certain protein fraction, the nature and extent of the pathological process in general form. The analysis of the conducted researches allows medical specialists to find out exactly what ratio of protein fractions is observed in the human body and to determine the specific pathology inherent in a particular disease.
Kinds of protein fractions
Most of the basic biological fluid of a person, or blood, is made up of proteins. In the total amount their rate is in the range of 60-80 g / l. To obtain an accurate analysis, serum electrophoresis is performed on paper. This study is the most common method of analysis. The main medium is a special filter paper. Its main feature is high hygroscopicity. Such paper can absorb water more than its weight by 130-200 times. Depending on the equipment used, electrophoresis on paper lasts 4-16 hours. There is a subdivision of protein structures. Then, the strips of paper are treated with special paints for analysis. This technique is the most common in the work of medical laboratories. Due to the effect of electric current, the protein fractions, charged negatively, move toward the positively charged electrode. Due to this, the protein components of the blood are divided into 5 known fractions:
- β - globulin;
Albumins are negatively charged, have a small molecular weight compared to other fractions. Due to this, the speed of their movement is much higher than that of the other fractions, and they are located farthest from the start site. The first three fractions of the globulin move at a lower rate because of their mass. But the smallest rate is recorded in γ-globulins. These proteins have a large mass and large, relative to others, dimensions. Their charge is almost neutral, so this protein fraction practically does not shift from the start line.
Need for use of
At present, serum electrophoresis is often performed for the diagnosis of an accurate diagnosis. This analysis can be appointed by both therapists and narrow-profile doctors. Indications for the research will be:
- various inflammations;
- chronic disease;
- pathological processes in connective tissue;
- internal bleeding;
- malignant neoplasm.
analysis In order for the results of the conducted studies to be correct, at least 8 hours before blood donation it is necessary to refuse to take food. In addition, it is necessary to coordinate the intake of medications, if any, with the attending physician.
In order to ensure that the results are not overestimated by mistake, it is necessary to minimize the possibility of blood coagulation to determine the protein fraction and total protein. Serum electrophoresis is performed carefully, since there is a possibility of distortion of the results obtained due to fibrinogen. He can hide abnormal proteins or be confused with them.
Normal values of
Within a day after the sample is submitted, an analysis for the electrophoresis of serum proteins will be ready. The norm of the obtained indicators by categories in adults:
- Total protein - 63-82 g / l.
- Albumins - 40-60% of the total number of fractions.
- α1-globulins - 2-5%.
- α2-globulins - 7-13%.
- β-globulins - 8-15%
- γ-globulins - 12-22%.
The need for an analysis of
A change in the amount of any protein fraction to a greater or lesser extent may indicate the development of a particular pathology. To obtain reliable information about this, electrophoresis of serum proteins is necessary. Deciphering the results will make it easier for medical professionals to diagnose and select the treatment.
Increase in albumins
At the very beginning, when analyzing the results obtained, the amount of albumin is determined. An increase in this fraction may indicate dehydration. This can happen if the patient has prolonged vomiting or disorders in the digestive system. Also, the increase in albumin occurs with burns of a large area of the skin.
Reduction of albumins
It is much more dangerous if the amount of albumins decreases in the body, it can speak of the following pathologies:
- Kidney and liver lesions.
- Pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Infectious processes.
- Violations in the activity of the cardiovascular system.
- Malignant neoplasms.
A slight decrease in the number of albumins may also be:
- For expectant mothers.
- When the dose of drugs is exceeded.
- With prolonged fever.
- In heavy smokers.
Change in the number of α1-globulin
A decrease in the number of a1-globulins is recorded with a lack of α1-antitrypsin. The increase is noted with exacerbation of inflammation in the body, violations in the work of the liver, with tissue decay.
Decrease in α2-globulin
It is recorded in diabetes mellitus, inflammatory processes in the pancreas, in newborn infants with jaundice, with hepatitis of toxic origin. It also attests to an incorrect, unbalanced diet.
Occurs in the presence of the following diseases:
- Inflammations, especially with the presence of purulent exudate( inflammation of the lungs and other processes with the presence of pus).
- Disorders of connective tissue( eg, rheumatism).
- Malignant neoplasm.
- Periods of recovery from burns.
- Kidney damage.
In addition, this phenomenon is typical for hemolysis of blood in a test tube during the study.
Increase of β-globulin
Appears in hyperlipoproteinemia( increase in the number of lipids in the blood), liver and kidney pathologies. It can be detected with an open stomach ulcer, as well as hypothyroidism( disruption of the thyroid gland).Reduction of the fraction is recorded with hypobetalipoproteinemia( increase in the blood component of betalapoprotein).
Changes in γ-globulin fraction
This fraction includes immunoglobulins. Therefore, the increase in γ-globulin is recorded in the case of failures in immunity. Usually this occurs with various infections, the development of the inflammatory process, changes in tissue and burn lesions. The growth of γ-globulin is noted in patients with chronic form of hepatitis. Practically the same picture is typical for cirrhosis of the liver. In case of advanced cases of this disease, the amount of the protein fraction of γ-globulin is significantly higher than that of albumins. In certain diseases, there may be disruptions in the formation of γ-globulins, and the development of altered proteins in the blood-paraproteins. To elucidate the nature of this development, an additional study is done - immunoelectrophoresis. This picture is typical for myeloma disease and Waldenstrom pathology.
An increase in the number of γ-globulins is also inherent in the following pathologies:
- in lupus erythematosus;
- rheumatoid arthritis form;
- chronic form of lymphocytic leukemia;
Reduction in the number of γ-globulin
The decrease in the γ-globulin count is divided into 3 types:
- Physiological( typical for children aged three to five months).
- Congenital( it develops from the moment of birth).
- Idiopathic( when the cause of development can not be established).
Secondary reduction is recorded in the development of diseases that cause depletion of the immune system. Recently, in medical practice, an analysis is increasingly being carried out to determine the number of prealbumins. Usually, such a study is carried out by patients who are in intensive care.
The reduction in the number of prealbumins is a very important and accurate test for determining the deficiency of protein structures in the patient's body. In the analysis for prealbumins, the protein metabolism is corrected in such patients.
The principle of such an analysis is similar to the technology of performing serum electrophoresis. Conduct it for more accurate diagnosis or detection of other pathologies. In addition, such an analysis will help to identify the patient's presence of proteinuria.
Serum electrophoresis and urine are important methods in the diagnosis of various infectious diseases. Thanks to the research technique and high accuracy, they help determine the type of pathology. An accurate diagnosis is the right way to correct treatment and complete recovery.