Retraction thread in dentistry
Dentists during the treatment of teeth are often for some reason or other forced to injure the gums and teeth surrounding them to perform their manipulations qualitatively. Such injuries include retraction of the gums.
What is retraction?
Retraction is translated literally as "pulling", and this word reflects the essence of the procedure. Gingival retraction is an expansion of the gum groove, so that the tooth root is exposed and the level of the gum is lowered.
This technique is implemented by using special retraction threads, which are a finished product in the form of twisted fibers of various sizes and lengths subjected to special treatment. Selection of the thread is done individually, which depends on the size of the gingival groove, that is, its depth and width.
Selection of a thread
Only an experienced technician can pick up a thread, since its size should correspond exactly to the specific properties of a section of the patient's oral cavity. Only if these conditions are met will the correct movement of tissues be guaranteed.
In dentistry, the retraction thread is used to perform a procedure that precedes the dental restoration - before the impression is taken.
When is it necessary?
Gum retraction is necessary:
- if necessary, protect the gums from injuries and gum disease during treatment;
- with bleeding during other dental manipulations;
- in case of need of carrying out of manipulations on a site of a tooth which settles down under a gum;
- tooth whitening;
- manufacture of crowns, dentures or veneers and their installation.
Characteristics and composition of
Twisted retraction threads are made of 100% cotton. This material has an absorbing effect. For gum retraction, the use of non-impregnated filaments is also possible, but the fibers with factory impregnation have the highest prevalence in practical applications, because they do not require time-consuming and are more economical.
Liquid has a universal composition that allows the specialist to produce an optimal reduction of muscle tissue and narrowing of the blood vessels during bleeding. Thanks to the retraction thread, Gingi Pak, for example, you can install the necessary device between teeth without bleeding and other unpleasant phenomena.
There are three types of threads:
- Cotton, made from fibers. They are very soft and have excellent absorbent properties.
- Tubes made of fabric. By their absorbent qualities are similar to cotton, but due to the characteristics of weaving, these filaments are better located in the gingival groove. For retraction, they are the most suitable.
- Threads that are not impregnated with chemical composition. Used for retraction of mechanical type, if the patient for one reason or another can not be combined retraction.
At the present time, new retraction techniques are emerging, which are based on the use of diode lasers, which are completely painless and safe. The difficulty is that the equipment necessary for such a retraction is very expensive.
Basic techniques for gingival retraction
There are three main methods for gum retraction.
1) Mechanical method.
A hand-held mechanical retraction involves the use of caps, rings and threads. These items are entered by the doctor under the gum, so she, in fact, and pushed. The main property of the mechanical method is painlessness, due to which it is mainly performed under local anesthesia. In addition, mechanical retraction requires a considerable amount of time, since the specialist must constantly control the depth of retraction, all manipulations should be performed accurately and slowly, with the measurement of the level of the dentogingival furrow. The presence of such complexities caused the fact that now there is almost no mechanical retraction, especially when it is necessary to remove the gum immediately on several teeth. In addition to the complexity, mechanical retraction is another drawback. Since the gingival tissue is highly sensitive, even the smallest mechanical impact can provoke serious bleeding or damage the tooth attachment in the jawbone.
2) Surgical method. This method is a complete elimination of a part of the gingival tissue by means of surgical electrical devices or an ordinary scalpel. This method is very radical, therefore it is used only in the following cases:
- if necessary, correcting the gums;
- if other methods can not be used due to various reasons.
3) Chemical method. Its essence lies in the use of special pastes, solutions or gels, which contribute to the reduction of the gum tissue, so that the edge of the gum is delayed for some time. It should be noted immediately that the chemical method is not suitable for all patients, as in most drugs there is adrenaline. This substance, even in small amounts, increases blood pressure and heart rate, and this is contraindicated for people who have heart rhythm disturbances, ischemia and hypertension. In addition, gum tissues are able to simply reject chemical substances, and in this case, chemical retraction is impossible.
The most gentle for gingival retraction are the products containing alumina and kaolin. They are produced in the form of a gel or paste and placed in special cartridges that allow you to accurately control their application to the gum. In the chemical method, it is especially important to observe the duration of the exposure in order to avoid chemical burns.
Combined technique of gingival retraction
In modern dentistry, three basic techniques are rarely used separately. Experts prefer to combine these methods. The most popular is the mechanical-chemical method. Retraction of this type is most often used in dentistry retraction threads. For a successful procedure, a specialist must accurately determine the depth and width of the gum furrow, and then pick up threads of a certain thickness and size. As in the chemical method, the dentist should know from the patient whether he does not suffer from heart disease, whether he is intolerant or allergic to certain chemicals. It is allowed to use no more than four threads at a time to prevent the occurrence of chemical burns.
To install a retraction thread, a special tool of a certain size is used( most often the device has rounded edges and a thin blade).When performing the procedure, the dentist needs to show maximum attention and skill in order to avoid trauma at the location of the thread. Before you enter the impression material, you must remove the thread from the groove. In some cases, after extracting the thread, a specialist prefers to wash the surface, since it is recommended that it be as dry as possible.
Retaining thread Gingi Pack
Consists of 100% cotton, impregnation - aluminum sulfate.
Properties and advantages of retraction filament with epinephrine:
- Has a unique texture, it is easy to hold it in your hands.
- Thanks to the impregnation method, uniform distribution of the solution along the entire length is guaranteed.
- Features unique packaging, cut off by a cap without scissors.
- The thread is sterile.
- Do not crumble fibers.
- Possibility of additional impregnation.
Retracted yarn Sure Cord
Also made from 100% cotton, consists of many small, interconnected loops. This allows you to firmly fix it in the inter-sessile groove. There are several sizes available, the thickness of the yarns will be different. Dentists use such strands when working with veneers.