Structure of the ankle
The structure of the ankle of a person's leg is quite complicated, because in many respects it is thanks to this element of the musculoskeletal system that we can keep the vertical position and move normally. The name itself is directly related to the appointment of the body - it binds the foot, the shin. If the ankle structure of the leg is not broken, there were no injuries, the body developed normally, a person can lead a mobile life. In the event of a malfunction, this is often possible only with significant limitations, or the person is completely deprived of the opportunity to move without external assistance.
Joint: the main components of
Modern anatomy offers the isolation of a complex structure of the structure of the ligaments of the ankle. It is now customary to talk about the front, back, outer and inner parts. The front passes into the foot( the back side), but the back is where the tendons are located. If, studying the structure of the ankle, the photo of this area is considered in all its details, for sure the attention will be attracted by the ankle. Anatomy speaks of the existence of four ankles in a man: the lateral, lateral form the outer part of the ankle, and the medial, the middle - it is inside.
Structural features of
As is known from anatomy, the anatomy of the ankle is quite complex - there are many small elements, thanks to which the person gets the opportunity to move. In addition to muscles, there are ligaments, bone elements, cartilaginous tissue. Thanks to this joint, the connection of the large and small tibia, the talant, the supraclavicular, is ensured. The structure of ankle bones is largely due to the peculiarities of the elements with which they contact. Thus, the tibia ends with a thickened part, this allows them to cover the talus bones. This is what forms the part of the leg that is called the ankle.
If you study the structure of the ankle of a person, the ligaments and bones of this element from the photo, it will be seen that from one side the element is convex, and the opposite effect on the other - a hollow is formed. The complex of bone fibers is protected from external harmful factors by a cartilaginous tissue - elastic, smooth. This structure of the human ankle bones helps to minimize the frictional force and reduce the load accompanying the movement. With jerks, shocks, cartilage becomes a natural shock absorber, due to which the bones keep a healthy state longer, and bone tissues are minimally abraded.
Human ankle structure
The ankle of the foot in the ankle area is a rather complex construction formed by several blocks. The outer one is created by a tibia( its distal margin) adjacent to two protruding elements. From the inside, the ankle block is formed by the anterior, posterior tubercles, a ligament in the form of a delta, anchored from the inside of the ankle.
Considering the structure of the ankle of a person, special attention is paid to the distal epiphysis. This element is where the tubular bone ends. The block is divided into the front and rear, the first much smaller in size than the second. Finally, the distal surface is the fourth large block that makes up the ankle. The structure of the ankle is largely due to the characteristics of the tibia - its location and shape. In particular, it is it formed and the distal surface, arched arcuate, from the inside equipped with an appendage. Also there are two outgrowths, looking in different directions.
The structure of the ankle involves the allocation of two surfaces of the ankle: medial, lateral. The second, in turn, is also formed by two elements: external, internal. From behind you can see a small depression, where short, long muscle fibers are attached, stretching to the tibia. The surface from the outer part is the fascia, the tendons on the sides. The structure of the ankle is quite complicated, it includes many elements, including hyaline cartilage, fixed just on the surface of the ankle from the inside. There are also points for the attachment of the talus bone, designed to provide a link between the bones of the shank and the heel.
Bundles and vessels
The structure of the ankle is also a rather complex system of ligaments that anchor the bones in anatomically correct position and allow them to be fixed. In addition, it is thanks to these elements that it is possible to ensure the reliability of the structure of the human skeleton, including the ankle - the bones remain in their places even with increasing loads. Bundles are extremely important for the normal functioning of the body, and they are formed by bundles of special fibrous tissue. Human ligaments are elastic, so you can bend, unbend limbs, moving with observance of different amplitudes.
No less important element in the structure of the ankle is the vessels, without which limbs simply could not exist. Through them, blood is supplied to the tissues, providing food that brings in useful trace elements and oxygen. No less important are the nerve fibers, which are rather dense in the ankle region, literally braiding the organ with a high-density net. In sum, these elements are responsible for coordinated movements. But the muscles in the general case are not considered part of the ankle, at the same time, movement without such tissue would be impossible, and this is important to consider.
Bundles: structural features of
There are several types of ligaments necessary for the normal functioning of the ankle. One of the important parts is the fibers, through which the tibia are joined together. This block is immobile and formed by several groups of ligaments. In particular, here there is an interosseous, responsible for the retention of all tibia, and the lower lower, continuing it. From the bottom there is a ligament and in front - anatomically correct it is between the ankle outside and the tibia. Thanks to this bunch, the foot can rotate, it also limits this movement. Finally, the fibers of the connection of the tibia comprise a block of transverse ligaments. Their main task is to provide the ability to rotate the foot inside. There is also a restriction of this movement. These fibers are located under the binder from the front.
Another important group of forming ankle fibers is the outer lateral. These include delta-shaped tissues located on the inner surface of the organ. In fact, the ligaments provide a connection between the talus, heel and bone in the form of a rook.
Muscular tissue: features of
The ankle is in contact with several muscle groups responsible for a fairly wide range of functions. In particular, for joints to bend, activation of the plantar, triceps muscles, as well as special flexors that support the operation of the fingers, and tibial muscle from behind is necessary. But unbending is already a bit different function, and for its implementation it is necessary to use extensor fibers and a large tibia muscle located in front. To withdraw the joint to the side, tibia, short muscular tissues are activated. To bring it is necessary to simultaneously use the muscle behind and a large tibia in front.
Rotational movements are possible due to activation of the tibia, extensor and muscle tissue located on the thumb. If you need a similar movement, but in the opposite direction( inside), you have to use muscle tissue: extensor( on the fingers), small long, short tibia. To move your fingers, the body activates flexors, extensors, as well as a short muscle tissue located on the sole and back of the foot. The arch of the foot is strengthened by lateral, medial muscular fibers, medium.
Joint: features of functioning of
Due to the specific structure of the ankle, the foot can be maximally mobile. This is what is its main functional load. Within the framework of anatomy it is common to distinguish two main aspects of the activity of this tissue block: tightness and production of the synovial fluid necessary for the normal functioning of the fibers. This substance is quite elastic, it is they filled with body cavities visually resembling a bag.
If the ankle is functioning normally, in particular, the joint develops the put liquid, and also guarantees the tightness of the tissues, then the body has good, high quality support, the person can move his legs without fear of pain, injuries, or other troubles. To keep the connection in anatomically correct state, you need to protect your health. Doctors call for timely prevention of ankle diseases, since preventive measures are much easier than treating any disease, especially the joint.
How to maintain health?
According to statistics, ankle injury is one of the most common injuries of the legs in humans. This is due to the heavy loads and vulnerability of this part of the limbs. Articular components, the foot work not only at the moment when a person moves, but also when he sits, stands. Quite often fix the rupture of ligaments, sprains. There may be other damage. In recent years, cases of diagnosing orthopedic diseases have become more frequent.
In order for the joint to be in good condition for a long time, and the person could move without difficulty and pain, without any restrictions of mobility, it is important to choose good, comfortable shoes for the size, and also regularly massage the foot. You can prevent limb diseases by controlling your weight, avoiding excessive kilograms. If a person is engaged in sports, it is necessary to use special supporting stockings or to make bandages with elastic material. This helps to reduce and distribute the load, reduces the likelihood of injury. It is equally meaningful to approach the organization of the day, allocating time for work, rest, distributing all the time so that there are no overloads on joint, muscle, bone tissues. With a painful syndrome, even a weak one, you should immediately make an appointment with a doctor to find out the cause. If the pathology begins, it is easier to eliminate it at first, rather than when it goes into a developed state, provokes complications.
Complicated and vulnerable
Often athletes call the ankle by the vestibular apparatus of the lower extremities. This is due to the fact that it is thanks to this body that a person can maintain balance by performing a variety of movements. Of the other elements that form the musculoskeletal system, the ankle is almost the most difficult. And the fortitude, and the mechanics of movement - all in the zone of his responsibility. The ankle is involved in jumping, running, walking. Its normal functioning allows you to crouch, stand on tiptoe, while maintaining a stable vertical position.
The complexity of the structure, the variety of functions assigned to organic tissue cause a propensity for injury. It is known that the more complex a system is, the more likely the violation of its functionality is, and the ankle is just a very, very complex combination of a huge number of elements carrying different functional loads.
Currently, one of the most frequently diagnosed diagnoses in those who treat pain in the limbs is arthritis. It is an inflammation that affects the ankle, which proceeds in a chronic or acute form. Also, the area is affected by osteoarthritis, which reveals the degradation of the cartilaginous tissue, which adversely affects the mobility of the elements.
Diseases develop over a wide range of causes. Often the whole thing at an age - over the years, organic tissues wear out, become thinner, and a person loses mobility, pains him. Its role can play loads, injuries, which affected this area of osteoporosis. Often, the problem is provoked by general metabolic disorders of the body, as well as pathologies that cause this trouble. Dangerous to the ankle and autoimmune disorders of health, which are characterized by an incorrect choice of "enemies" cells of the immune system. It is known that in a number of diseases, immunity "fights" with one's own organism. This is typical not only for HIV, but also for lupus in the systemic form, some other pathologies. A genetic predisposition can play a role: the propensity to defeat joints is inherited.
Injuries of the ankle: as indicated by the statistics
As can be seen from the information collected by the medicine, the most common injuries of the tibia( fractures, cracks), as well as dislocations, subluxations. It so happened that at first many people do not pay attention to the manifestations of the result of a fall, stroke and turn to the doctor when the situation becomes severe. Doctors urge: if after a jump or other dangerous situation in the ankle, the ankle is concerned about pain( even mild), lasting several days, it is necessary to visit a traumatologist. Often pain accompanies puffiness - sometimes hardly noticeable, sometimes pronounced.
Symptomatic usually indicates a bone crack. If the joint end has suffered, the joint cavity may become deformed. This leads to serious mobility impairments, and in the neglected case there is a risk that the process can not be reversed - a person will suffer pain all his life.