Osteoarthritis - what is it? Causes, symptoms and treatment of the disease
Joint disease osteoarthritis: what is it, what are its causes and symptoms, what are the treatment methods - answers to these questions will interest many people, especially in old age.
Articular diseases and osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is called deforming osteoarthritis, which is a common type of arthritis. The disease refers to chronic, that is, the damage to the bone and joint structure of the human skeleton is slow and irreversible.
What is osteoarthritis? This is the destruction of muscle tissue in the main joints, which include those that are most affected by the load: the knee, hip, spine and hands.
Most often this disease affects men and women after 45 years, but every year more and more cases are registered among younger people.
Articular cartilage is a fairly sturdy material that acts as a shock absorber when striking, ensuring a smooth glide of the adjacent bones of the joint. When it is destroyed and erased, surface friction increases, pain occurs, deformation occurs.
Synovial fluid is a thick lubricant that reduces friction and wear on joint surfaces. As the disease progresses, it becomes less dense and elastic.
There are 2 types of disease: primary and secondary osteoarthritis. The first develops with the natural wear of the cartilaginous tissue as a result of human aging, and the second - under the influence of external negative factors.
Causes of osteoarthritis
Factors affecting the increase in the likelihood of disease in humans:
- a hereditary predisposition due to a defect in the gene that is responsible for the proper formation of cartilaginous tissue, its damage and causes joint problems is the most significant factor affecting the appearance of the disease in30% of cases;
- obesity - promotes the appearance of knee and hip joint disease because of the heavy workload on them;
- injuries, especially in athletes, increase the risk of disease in those areas where injuries occur( back, knees, etc.);
- great joint strain due to professional activity.
The main reason for the development of osteoarthritis of joints is a slow metabolism, which is what causes changes in cartilage tissues. In addition, modern scientists distinguish other causes of the disease:
- age-related changes in the human body, in which there is a decrease in tissue elasticity;
- excessive body weight and overload on joints and bones also contribute to destruction;
- the effect of toxins in viral diseases, with an incorrect lifestyle( alcohol and smoking abuse);
- endocrine disorders in the body: diabetes, menopause period in women, hormonal disorders in diseases of the thyroid gland, etc.;
- diseases of the vascular system, atherosclerosis, changes in the walls of the arteries.
Osteoarthritis: symptoms of
Joint manifestations develop gradually, because of which the patient can not immediately guess about their problem. In the absence of treatment degeneration of the cartilaginous tissues and subsequent deterioration of the patient. Therefore, pay attention to the appearance of pain in the joints immediately, to begin treatment as soon as possible and slow the progression of the disease.
The main symptoms of osteoarthritis:
- Joint pains during movement, which at first do not bother the person, becausein a calm state there are none.
- As the disease develops, the pain manifests itself after a period of rest or from a heavy load. If the exacerbation at the initial stage does not begin on time treatment, the disease progresses.
- There is a proliferation of bone tissue in the joints of the knee, fingers, etc., it feels painful even with little activity.
- Swelling of joints due to accumulation of synovial fluid.
With a sharp movement, the patient may hear a click in the area of the affected joint - crepitation, which is brighter than that audible in the cold and damp.
Over time, the periods of exacerbation of the disease begin to increase, the mobility of the joints decreases, the patient can even completely lose the motor function. This is caused by degenerative processes in the tissues. There are also external changes: redness of the painful zones and an increase in the volume of the articular cups.
In the next stage of osteoarthritis of the joints, fluid accumulates in the cavity of the joints, which often contributes to the body temperature increase in the diseased area: the joint swells and hot to the touch. The proliferation of tissues over time leads to the squeezing of the nerve endings around the joints, because of which the sensitivity decreases, possibly numbness and pain reduction.
Manifestations of osteoarthritis depending on the affected area
Symptoms and treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee or hip differ only in the location of pain during movement, and in the zone of cartilage damage.
For example, with osteoarthritis of the knee joint, painful sensations are manifested when flexing and flexing the knees, with hip injury - in the thigh region and given to the groin area, with spine disease - are localized in the lumbar region or in the neck. Often, soreness is associated with a change in weather or climate, a load on the joint.
In severe cases with hyperextension of the joint tissues, the blood vessels are squeezed, the consequences depend on the location of the joints. If the spine is damaged, it is likely that the esophagus will be squeezed, which will lead to dysphagia, with the growth of the joints in the neck region, dizziness and severe headaches are possible.
According to the findings of scientists, 15% of the world's population have different forms of osteoarthritis. After 35 years of age, the risk of developing the disease is 50%, and after 50 years it rises to 75%, over 70 years old - 90%.
What is this - "osteoarthritis" with age, learns almost every person as his body ages, and in the presence of negative factors or excessive strain - even earlier.
Diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis
The optimal way to diagnose osteoarthritis is a complete examination of a patient in a hospital in a hospital. This allows not only to put the right diagnosis, but also to develop the most effective treatment plan.
Diagnosis is based on tests and studies:
- general examination and description of symptoms;
- augmentation of the location of pain;
- X-ray of the affected area, ultrasound examination, if necessary, the doctor prescribes an MRI - changes in the joint can be traced from the images taken;
- is a puncture of the articular fluid( arthrotcentesis), its biochemical analysis is performed;
- blood tests.
Based on the findings, the doctor gives an opinion on the severity and extent of osteoarthritis, clinical recommendations for the use of pain medication, and develops an individual treatment technique.
The disease is chronic, so the main goal of doctors is to slow down the processes of joint deformation and the further development of the disease.
The purpose of the initial stage of treatment of osteoarthritis is to reduce pain during periods of exacerbation, for which anesthetics are prescribed, which will help restore joint mobility. It should be borne in mind that frequent intake of such drugs may be accompanied by gastrointestinal diseases or the occurrence of gastritis, and they can not suspend the degenerative process.
The most effective methods of treatment:
- weight reduction of the patient, which implies a special diet;
- medical gymnastics and physiotherapy;
- reception of medications for anesthesia( tablets, etc.);
- use of adaptive devices( orthopedic footwear, knee pads, tires, etc.);
- removal of articular fluid, the introduction of drugs into the joint.
The main goal in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee joint and other affected areas is weight loss and diet compliance, as well as regular exercise of a complex of exercises, swimming and cycling are very useful. In combination with physiotherapeutic procedures, this will strengthen the muscles, ligaments and tendons near the joint and normalize the process of supplying useful nutrients to the tissues. For the removal of pain, thermal procedures and compresses help. If the posture is incorrect, as one of the reasons for the onset of the disease, its correction is necessary.
If the disease progresses, then the bandages and tires that will immobilize the affected joint will help to get rid of the pain. If the above methods do not help, then surgical intervention is recommended.
For osteoarthritis treatment should be comprehensive, aimed not only at removing pain, but also on eliminating the causes of the disease, restoring cartilaginous tissue. For this, the following are used:
- in tableted form: Tylenol, aspirin, Ibuprofen, Celebrex, paracetamol, etc.;
- ointments and creams are applied directly in the area of the affected joint;
- chondroprotectors 3 generations - are assigned to protect cartilaginous tissue from destruction;
- preparations for molecular-structural restoration of cartilaginous tissue - improve the mobility of joints;
- injections into the affected joint are done with special preparations in cycles of up to 3-5 pieces per week, they are used only for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee joint.
The most common method of treatment and quite expensive is endoprosthetics, i.e.replacement of an artificial joint. Such a prosthesis can not completely replace the motor abilities of the natural, but it allows to remove the pain. Most often, knee and hip joints are re-implanted.
There are also other surgical methods:
- joint cleansing with an arthroscope: piercing the skin in several places and grinding the damaged cartilage is done only in the early stages, but is considered insufficiently effective procedure;
- osteotomy is an operation designed to restore the function of a damaged joint for a while.
Osteoarthritis of the knee joint and its treatment
The knee joint is most often exposed to this disease, tk.it is heavily loaded when walking and other movements.
Symptoms of knee osteoarthritis are similar to those already mentioned: pain in the knee during flexion and extension, especially when walking on the stairs. As the condition worsens, stiffness is felt, motion becomes difficult, a swelling appears. Pains usually intensify in the morning, after rest or after intensive loads, while standing on their knees.
During the examination, the X-ray shows the narrowing of the space between the joints of the diseased knee.
The treating physician, in accordance with the degree of defeat and symptoms of osteoarthritis, treats the patient as an analgesic medicine, recommends therapeutic and restorative exercises that will help strengthen the leg muscles and improve flexibility.
With severe pain, you can use special knee pads and tires, which, according to patients, help to reduce pain and allow you to move more actively.
With this method, two types of tires are used:
- unloading, which reduces the burden on the affected area;
- support - allows you to evenly distribute the load on the joint.
One of the ways of treatment is the use of dietary supplements, food supplements containing aminoglucose sulfates and chondroitin. These substances are the natural components of articular cartilage. Bioadditives are made from products of animal origin, or synthetic substances and are quite effective in the early stages of osteoarthritis. To achieve a tangible effect, you need to complete a complete course of medications lasting at least three months. This will help reduce swelling and inflammation in the joint, improve the motor activity of the patient.
It should be taken into account that dietary supplements can interact with medications prescribed by a doctor, so they must be warned about their admission.
One of the methods that help to relieve pain and improve the condition is an injection into the knee joint. In this case, various medications can be used:
- Corticosteroids, cortisone - hormonal drugs that provide analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The disadvantage of their use is the short-term action and possible side effects, up to the destruction of the joint with too frequent procedures.
- Injections with hyaluronic acid. They help strengthen the astringent function of the synovial membrane and replenish the missing fluid in the knee joint, this method is effective in the early stages of the disease, if other drugs do not help.
- Injections with gold-hydrochloric sodium are one of the popular methods of treating arthritis.
Traditional methods of treatment
Various herbal preparations and tinctures help to reduce pain syndrome and stop the destruction of articular cartilage. They are effective in the complex treatment of joint osteoarthritis.
Popular popular recipe for oral administration: a mixture of elderberry, juniper, nettle leaves, horsetail, marigold, willow bark in equal proportions. At 2 tbsp.l.mix 1 liter of boiling water, insist 12 hours, and then drain. Infusion should be used on ½ cup several times a day, the course of treatment - 2 months.
Compresses and topical ointments help reduce pain, improve blood circulation, relax muscles and ligaments near the affected joint.
Most popular recipes:
- Mix 2 tbsp.l.castor oil with 1 tbsp.l.turpentine. With this solution, rub the joint twice a day.
- Compress is made from the crushed root of horseradish, which is steamed on low heat, then the finished mass is put in cotton fabric and applied to the aching joint. Infusion of dandelion flowers. The bottle is filled with flowers, then top up alcohol or cologne, insist 1 month.and filter. Every evening, dandelion infusion should rub the diseased knees for a month, in particularly severe cases, you can and longer. At the same time, it is recommended to chew a few dandelion leaves daily. Store the infusion possible at room temperature.
- A mixture prepared from 5% iodine and 10% ammonia, May flower honey, glycerin and medical bile( in equal parts) is infused for 10 days in the dark. Before use, it should be heated in a water bath. It is superimposed in the form of a compress on the joint for the night, on top the knee is wrapped with polyethylene and a woolen kerchief.
- Juice celandine permeate linen cloth and apply to the diseased knee for 40-60 minutes, then lubricate with sunflower oil.
It should be remembered that folk remedies are ancillary ways of treating osteoarthritis, and are used in combination with medical devices that are prescribed by the attending physician.
Knowing the consequences of absence of treatment of osteoarthritis, what it is and how to treat it, you need to closely monitor your health, especially in old age, when the probability of disease occurrence is maximum.