OCD is an obsessive-compulsive disorder. Symptoms, treatment, causes
Do not part with the hand antiseptic? Your wardrobe is literally laid out on the shelves? Such habits can be a reflection of the character or beliefs of a person. Sometimes they cross an invisible border and become obsessive-compulsive disorder( OCD).Let's consider the main reasons for their appearance and the methods of treatment offered by doctors.
Description of the disease
OCD is a mental disorder that affects the quality of life of a person. Experts attribute it to obsessive-compulsive neuroses, as well as phobias. If the latter include only obsessions, then compulsions are added to the OCD.
The name of the disease came from two English words: obsessio and compulsio. The first means "obsession with an idea," and the second can be interpreted as "coercion."These two words are chosen successfully, capaciously, because they reflect the whole essence of the disease. People suffering from OCD are considered to be disabled in some countries. Most of them spend a lot of time meaningless because of compulsions. Obsessions are often expressed by obsessive thoughts and phobias, which also negatively affects the quality of life of the patient.
How the disease begins
According to medical statistics, obsessive-compulsive disorder is formed in the range of 10 to 30 years. Regardless of when exactly the first symptoms appeared, the patients turn to the doctor between 27 and 35 years old. This means that several years pass from the moment of the development of the disease and before the beginning of treatment. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder affects every third adult. Among patients, young children are much smaller. This diagnosis is confirmed in every second child of 500.
At the initial stage, the symptoms of the disease manifest themselves in the form of obsessive conditions and various phobias. During this period a person can still be aware of their irrationality. With the passage of time, provided there is no medical and psychological assistance, the disorder becomes more acute. The patient loses the ability to adequately assess their fears. In advanced cases, treatment involves hospitalization with the use of serious medications.
The main causes of
Scientists still can not list the main factors contributing to the occurrence of mental illness. However, there are many theories. According to one of them, among biological factors, obsessive-compulsive disorder causes the following:
- metabolic disorder;
- injury and head injury;
- hereditary predisposition;
- complicated course of infectious ailments;
- abnormalities at the level of the autonomic nervous system.
In a separate group, doctors suggest introducing social and social causes of the disorder. Among them the following are most often encountered:
- education in a strict religious family;
- complex relationships at work;
- frequent stress.
The panic fear inherent in this mental illness can be based on personal experience or imposed by society. A vivid example of the consequences of such a disorder is the viewing of criminal news. Emerging fears a person tries to overcome by actions that convince otherwise. He can several times double-check a closed machine or recount banknotes from a bank. Such actions bring only a short-term relief. It is unlikely to get rid of obsessive ideas. In this case, the assistance of a specialist is required. Otherwise, the ailment will completely absorb the human psyche.
This disease affects both adults and toddlers. However, children are less likely to suffer from its manifestations. Symptoms of the disorder may vary depending on the age of the patient.
How does the disease manifest in adults?
Obsessive-compulsive disorder, the symptoms of which will be presented to your attention below, in all adults has about the same clinical picture. First of all, the disease manifests itself in the form of obsessive burdensome thoughts. It can be a fantasy on the topic of sexual violence or death. A person is constantly haunted by the idea of an imminent death, a loss of financial well-being. Such thoughts terrify the patient OCD.He clearly understands their baselessness. However, he can not cope with fears and superstitions on his own, that all his fantasies will one day come to life.
The disorder also has external symptoms, which are expressed in the form of repetitive motions. For example, such a person can constantly count the steps, several times a day to walk wash hands. Manifestations of the disease are often noted by colleagues and coworkers. In people suffering from OCD, there is always an ideal order on the table, and all items are symmetrically arranged. Books on the shelves are either in alphabetical order or in color.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the feature of growing in crowded places. In a patient, even in a crowd, panic attacks may increase. Most often, they are caused by fear of picking up a dangerous virus or losing personal belongings, becoming another victim of pickpockets. Therefore, such people tend to avoid public places.
Sometimes the syndrome is accompanied by a decrease in self-esteem. OCD - this is a disorder, especially susceptible to hypochondria. They have a habit of controlling everything, starting from work at work and ending with the ration of pets. The decline in self-esteem is due to the awareness of the changes taking place and the inability to deal with them.
Symptoms in children
OCD in young patients is less common than in adults. Symptoms of the disorder have much in common. Let's consider some examples.
- Even enough adult children often pursue the fear of being lost among a large number of people on the street. He forces the guys to hold their parents firmly by the hand, periodically check to see if their fingers are firmly attached.
- Many children, older brothers and sisters scare sending to the orphanage. Fear of being in this institution makes the child constantly ask again if his parents love him.
- Almost all of us lost personal belongings for once. However, not all experiences on this matter are without a trace. Panic because of a lost notebook often leads to a maniacal recount of school supplies. Teenagers can even wake up at night with a view to re-checking all personal belongings.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children is often accompanied by a bad mood, sullenness, increased tearfulness. Some have lost their appetite, others at night are tortured by terrible nightmares. If within a few weeks all attempts of parents to help the child turn out to be fruitless, a consultation of the child psychologist is needed.
Diagnosis methods for
When symptoms of anxiety obsessive-compulsive disorder appear, you should seek help from a mental health professional. Often people with OCD do not suspect their problems. In this case, close relatives or friends should hint at this diagnosis very accurately. This disease does not pass by itself.
Its diagnosis is only possible by a psychiatrist who has the appropriate qualifications and experience in this field. Usually the doctor pays attention to three things:
- The person has expressed obsessive obsessions.
- There is a compulsive behavior that he wishes to hide in any way.
- OCD prevents the usual rhythm of life, communication with friends and work.
Symptoms of the disease, in order to have medical significance, must be repeated at least 50% of the days within two weeks.
There are special evaluation scales( for example, Yale-Brown) for determining the severity of OCD.They are also used in practice to follow the dynamics of the therapy.
Based on the tests conducted and a conversation with the patient, the doctor can confirm the final diagnosis. Usually for counseling, psychotherapists explain what the obsessive-compulsive disorder is and what manifestations it has. Examples of patients with this ailment from show business help to understand that the disease is not so dangerous, it must be fought with. Also, the doctor tells about the tactics of treatment when waiting for the first positive results.
Can a man help himself?
OCD is a fairly common pathology. It can periodically arise in any person, including absolutely healthy mentally. It is very important to be able to recognize the first symptoms of the disorder and seek qualified help. If this is not possible, you should try to analyze the problem and choose a specific tactic to combat it. Doctors offer several options for self-treatment.
Step 1. Examine what constitutes an obsessive disorder. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is described in detail in specialized literature. Therefore, any person can easily recognize its main causes and signs. After studying the information, it is necessary to write out all the symptoms that have been causing concern recently. Opposite to each disorder, you need to leave room for a detailed plan, how it can be overcome.
Step 2. Third-Party Assistance. If you suspect a ROC, it is best to contact a qualified technician. Sometimes the first visit to a doctor causes difficulties. In such a situation, you can ask a friend or relative to confirm the symptoms written before or add others.
Step 3. Look at your fears "in the eye."People with obsessive-compulsive disorder usually understand that all fears are fiction. Every time there is a desire to double-check the locked door or wash your hands, you need to remind yourself about this fact.
Step 4. Reward yourself. Psychologists advise to constantly mark the steps on the road to success, even the most insignificant. You need to praise yourself for the changes you have acquired and the skills you have gained.
These recommendations most often help in the early stages of the development of the disorder.
Methods of psychotherapy
OCD is not a verdict. The disorder can be treated with psychotherapeutic sessions. Modern psychology offers several effective techniques. Let's consider each of them in more detail.
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy. The authorship of this technique belongs to Geoffrey Schwartz. Its essence is reduced to resistance to neurosis. A person first becomes aware of the existence of a disorder, and then gradually tries to fight it. Therapy involves the acquisition of skills that allow themselves to stop the obsessions.
- Technique "Stop thinking".It was developed by Joseph Volpe. The therapist offered treatment on the basis of an assessment of the situation by the patient. For this Volpe recommends a person to recall one of the recent bouts of frustration. With the help of leading questions, he helps the patient to assess the significance of the manifestation of symptoms and their impact on everyday life. The therapist gradually brings to the realization of the unreality of fears. This technique allows you to completely overcome the disorder.
The above therapeutic effect techniques are not the only one of its kind. However, they are considered the most effective.
In advanced cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder, medication is required. How to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder in this case? The main drugs for fighting the disease are serotonin reuptake inhibitors:
- Tricyclic antidepressants.
Scientists from around the world continue to actively study obsessive-compulsive disorder( OCD).More recently, they have found therapeutic possibilities in agents that are responsible for releasing the neurotransmitter glutamate. They can significantly mitigate the manifestations of neurosis, but do not help get rid of the problem forever. The following preparations are suitable for this description: "Memantine"( "Riluzol"), "Lamotrigine"( "Gabapentin").
All known antidepressants in this disorder are used only as a symptomatic treatment. With their help you can eliminate the neurosis and stress stress that arise against the background of obsessive states.
It is worth noting that the medicines listed in the article are released from pharmacies only on prescription. The choice of a specific medication for treatment is performed by a doctor taking into account the patient's condition. Not the least role in this matter is the duration of the syndrome. Therefore, the doctor should know how long ago there was an obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Treatment at home
OCD belongs to a group of mental illnesses. Therefore, to cure the disorder without outside support is unlikely to succeed. However, therapy with the help of folk remedies always helps to calm down. To this end, healers are advised to prepare broths on herbs with sedative properties. Among them are the following plants: lemon balm, motherwort, valerian.
The method of respiratory gymnastics can not be considered popular, but it can be successfully used at home. For such treatment, a recipe or third-party support of specialists is not required. Therapy by changing the strength of breathing allows you to restore the emotional state. As a result, a person can soberly assess everything that happens in his life.
After the course of treatment the patient needs social rehabilitation. Only in case of successful adaptation in society the symptoms of the disorder will not return again. Supportive therapeutic activities are aimed at teaching productive contact with the society, relatives. At the stage of rehabilitation, assistance from relatives and friends is of paramount importance.