Stanton-Capdepone Syndrome - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
In this article, we consider the Stanton-Capdepone syndrome, a disease that is determined at the gene level. It is manifested by damage to the enamel and dentin, resulting in not only an aesthetic defect, but also a further decrease in the occlusion height. The size and shape of the teeth during eruption are not violated.
Discolorite is typical - enamel painting in grayish or brown color. A history of the disease test, physical examination data, X-ray examination and EDI allow to diagnose the syndrome correctly. His treatment usually consists of complex remineralizing therapy and prosthetics. Let us analyze this syndrome in more detail.
Causes of pathology
Stenton-Capdepone Syndrome is a hereditary disease that results from the mutation of a gene that is responsible for a specific matrix protein. It is transmitted in 50% of cases, both for girls and boys. The disease is not only temporary, but also permanent teeth.
The reason for the irreversible changes is a decrease in the thickness of the enamel layer( dysplasia of enamel and dentin), which is why the bonds between the solid tissues of the tooth are broken. Usually the layer of preentin is absent. Dentinal tubules are less than normal. The production of replacement dentin leads to obliteration of the pulp chamber and calcification of the root canals.
The Stenton-Capdepone syndrome does not prevent the teeth from erupting in time. Early or late appearance is rare. A characteristic symptom of the disease is the color of the enamel - from yellow to gray and brown. It arises from the filling of the dentinal tubules with blood. Spalling, enamel reveals the surface of the dentin.
An increase in water content and a decrease in mineral constituents destroys the structure of dentin, which affects the increased abrasion of the teeth. Reduced bite reduces the lower third of the face. Because of the chips, the enamels become sharp edges of the teeth, resulting in painful lesions of the mucosa. Why is glass ionomer cement used? About this further.
Clinical examination and the results of additional research methods, as well as anamnestic data are taken into account when making a diagnosis. In a physical examination, the dentist determines that the enamel is pigmented with opalescent, gray or brown pigmentation. The shape of the teeth will be correct. Within the limits of the size of the crowns. The enamel will be thin and fragile, quickly cleaving after eruption, the dentin layer as a result is exposed. Dentin is stained, and the teeth become dark brown. Due to the fact that there is an increased erasure, sharp edges appear, traumatizing the mucous membrane in the mouth. In this syndrome, the pulp chambers are translucent.
Roentgenogram reflects a decrease in the height of the roots, the cavity of the tooth is narrowed, the root canals of the tooth - with obliteration. Also in patients with this syndrome the radiographic method often reveals foci of destruction in the bone tissue. With the violation of the processes of bone formation, cystic structures are associated. Also, this leads to the penetration of infection transdental in the decay or inflammation of the pulp. By the results of EDI, the sensitivity of the pulp is reduced.
It is important to differentiate the syndrome from other genetically determined pathologies of hard tooth tissues. This includes:
- imperfect dentinogenesis 1 and 3 types;
- dentin dysplasia;
- imperfect amelogenesis.
The examination is performed by a dentist-therapist. To identify hereditary factors of the disease, consults a geneticist.
What is the treatment?
With Stenton-Capdepone syndrome, remineralizing therapy is carried out, which consists in the restoration of enamel and dentin. This method prevents subsequent tooth decay.
Most patients show endodontic treatment and tooth covering with crowns. An effective method is prosthetics. In this case, cast-crowned crowns are used, as well as crowns made of cermets. Dental replacement problems help to solve removable dentures. How are the canals protected?
The patient is assigned the appointment of phosphoric-calcium preparations, vitamins, microelements for oral administration. The surface of the teeth is covered with a substance containing calcium and fluorine. Restoration of teeth with composite materials, which are retro-reflective, is performed with the syndrome, but this is a temporary measure, since there is no strong connection between the dentine and the photopolymer material due to reduced mineralization. Later the tooth is destroyed.
For the restoration of crowns in childhood in dentistry, glass ionomer cement is most often used because of good adhesion of the material to dentin and enamel, caries protective effect, high biocompatibility.
If patients with this pathology are diagnosed with periapical changes, endodontic treatment is performed with the crown covering the teeth. These are serious methods.
How can prosthetics help?
Prosthetics is the optimal method of restoring the function and aesthetics of the teeth. Whole-crowned crowns are made on lateral teeth, frontal - covered with cermets. Also, prosthetics can be carried out by the method of veneering, laminating the front group of teeth and cheek surfaces using ceramic linings. If the root of the tooth is broken or if the effectiveness of endodontic therapy is poor, the tooth is removed. To replace the defects of the dentition, often use removable dentures.
It is important to understand the following - as soon as the slightest problems with teeth or gums appear, you should immediately contact a dentist. Then all manipulations for treatment will cost several times cheaper. It is much easier to heal one tooth, rather than several. Moreover, do not start the process if there is inflammation or pain.
Timely treatment of patients, competent remineralizing therapy and prosthetics make it possible to save hard tissues of teeth. An irresponsible approach to one's health leads to the destruction and loss of teeth.