Segmental massage: types, causes, technique, techniques. Than classical massage differs from segmental massage
The human body is a complex multifunctional system. That is why the pathological changes of one of its organs can affect our entire health. In order to eliminate such changes, there is a reflex-segmental massage. Sometimes during this procedure, pains are projected onto those parts of the body that are removed from the affected organ. These zones are called segmented. They can be observed as increased sensitivity and soreness, and, on the contrary, loss of pain sensitivity of tissues.
What is attributed to reflex-segmental massage?
It should be noted that this type of manipulation is part of the field of restorative medicine, occupying a special place there. What is the difference between a classical massage and a segmental massage? It is simpler and less effective. In addition, in the segmental massage enters the classic, but in addition it also connective, point and periosteal. Also during this complex impact on the human body used special techniques. And the masseur applies all the necessary equipment with high intensity.
The basis of such a procedure is the impact on the autonomic nervous system of the patient. At the same time, the segmental massage allows not only successfully to combat a lot of chronic ailments. It is also a preventive measure to prevent the occurrence of pathological changes in the tissue area.
Reflex segment massage is a very common type of such procedures. When it is carried out, it is physically affected by the reflex zones located on the surface of the skin, which are connected with the internal organs. Several sessions of segmental massage can improve the body. At the same time, pains decrease, the circulation processes improve, the activity of the endocrine and vegetative systems is activated, and also the functions of all internal organs come to normal.
Segmental structure of the human body
At the earliest stages of its development, the human body consists of identical metamers. These are segments, each of which is provided with a spinal nerve, which is withdrawn to a specific area of the skin. Such zones are called dermatomes. These are areas of skin that look like bands or belts that surround the body from behind the middle line, extending to the middle line, located in the front. On the opposite side only sacral dermatomes pass. In this connection, the connection between the spinal nerve and the dermatome is constant.
The entire human body is divided into certain segments that correspond to the output of nerves. Thus distinguish:
- 5 sacral;
- 5 lumbar;
- 12 nursing;
- 8 cervical.
In the presence of pathological process in one or another internal organ there is a violation of the blood supply of the corresponding segment. Such a connection indicates the unity of the functioning of these parts. Thus, in case of violations of the sensitivity of the skin near the spine, as well as with other pathological changes, it is believed that inflammation takes place in the spine. The main area of segmental massage with cholecystitis is the abdominal area. In doing so, emphasis is placed on the right hypochondrium. A segmental massage of the cervicothoracic spine is performed with chest osteochondrosis.
Similar procedures are prescribed during the rehabilitation period after the transferred illness and for therapeutic purposes. In this case, the segmental massage can stop the development of ailments in the body.
Segmental massage is performed to find reflex changes in the skin and to have a positive effect on them. The mechanism of action in carrying out such a procedure is concluded in the increase of blood circulation in this or that segment.
How are such sites determined? This happens when using one or another method:
1. The masseur pushes his fingers against the skin, while watching for the appearance of pain.
2. The specialist grasps the skin, collecting it in a crease. If painful sensations appear inside the arising thickenings or the limitation of their mobility has been revealed, this will be evidence of the reflex changes of this segment.
3. The stretcher is applied to the skin. The appearance of painful sensations in this or that area will speak of reflex changes in connective tissue.
Thus, the segmental massage is performed only after the diagnosis of all areas and areas of the patient's body and when there are problematic areas in the tissues.
In addition, for detecting reflex changes it is possible:
- It is easy and easy to push the needles with the blunt tip over the skin. In the zone of hyperalgesia( increased soreness), this touch will be perceived as stitching and sharp.
- Tickle the patient. Sensations in the zone of reflex changes will be absent.
- Lightly touch the skin, using the sharp end of the needle. The hyperalgesia zone with this effect will respond with pain.
In addition, these or other pathologies of internal organs are revealed:
- with a visual inspection of the skin, on which there may be soft or coarse swelling, as well as indentations;
- when measuring with an elastomer;
- with point percussion, when the difference in tissue tension is determined after a series of light and short strokes on the skin with the palmar surface of the finger.
What are the causes of segmental massage? This kind of exposure to the patient's body is recommended to be used for the same indications as the classical one.
However, the peculiarity of this procedure, consisting in its reflex action on tissues, extends the scope of its use to a considerable extent. So, pathologies or causes of segmental massage:
- functional or chronic diseases of internal organs;
- disorders in the functioning of the vegetative and endocrine systems;
- functional and chronic rheumatic pathologies of the joints and spine;
- violation of blood supply.
Segmental massage should not be used with:
- purulent-inflammatory and acute processes, for the elimination of which urgent surgical intervention is necessary;
- general infectious diseases, which are accompanied by high temperature;
- venereal diseases;
- severe injuries and fractures of the musculoskeletal system;
- oncological diseases.
Varieties of segmental massage
The procedure for affecting the patient's autonomic nervous system through specific areas of tissue can be performed using various methods of exposure. In this regard, the following types of segmental massage are distinguished:
1. Periostal. This massage is carried out by providing physical impact directly on the painful points on the skin that have a reflex connection with this or that organ of the human body. Periodic massage helps to increase blood circulation and speeds up the process of metabolism. It is recommended for pathologies of internal organs, as well as for problems with the bone system and the musculoskeletal system.
2. Segmental. This massage is carried out with the use of special physical methods of influence and is an effective method to eliminate reflex changes in tissues. The main goal of such a procedure is to reduce the negative impact of pathological phenomena that have arisen in the human body.
3. Shiatsu. This massage came to us from Japan. This procedure is carried out by pressing the fingers on the acupuncture points. Shiatsu is ideal for restoring the patient's energy balance and improving his overall well-being. Japanese massage has not only a therapeutic effect. With its help, various kinds of mental disorders are prevented and the body's defenses are stimulated. Such a procedure is possible for every person. After pressing on that part of the body in which discomfort is experienced, it is possible to solve various health problems without much effort and for a short time. With this type of segmental massage a person is able to eliminate toothache, cope with fatigue, lower blood pressure and get rid of the uncomfortable sensations that have arisen in the lower back and in the shoulders.
4. Connecting. This massage was created in 1929 by Elizabeth Dicke, an instructor in physiotherapy exercises. During this procedure, by tightening the pads of the 3rd and 4th fingers, the nerve endings in the connective tissue are affected.
As a result, the blood supply of organs and tissues is normalized, the speed of the processes of scar regeneration increases and the negative reactions of the central nervous system are eliminated.
5. Spot. This massage is a physical effect on the active points of the skin, which is performed with the fingers. Through these zones, there is a positive effect on the central nervous system. First of all, the masseur must find out the patient's problems. After that, he determines those active points that are associated with the diseased organ, and carries out tricks of rubbing, stroking, vibration, gripping and pressing. Initially, a pinpoint massage causes pain, which subsequently disappears. A similar procedure is recommended for violations of posture and arthrosis, osteochondrosis, as well as for intervertebral hernias.
Reflex Segmental Massage Techniques
As mentioned above, the procedure that affects the human nervous system through the tissues of its skin is a kind of classic. That is why the techniques of segmental massage are largely repeated by those that exist with the traditional effect. The most common of these are rubbing and vibration, kneading and stroking. All this - the technique of segmental massage, which should be considered in more detail.
During the reception, such as chopping, or "sawing", the specialist places the index and thumbs of his hands on either side of the patient's spine so that a skin cushion appears between them. Conducting a reflex-segmental back massage, he performs sawing movements with his hands in different directions.
The second method is drilling. During its execution the specialist should be on the left hand of the patient. At the same time, the masseur places his right hand on the area of the patient's sacrum, grasping his spine with his fingers. Further, circular motions 1-4 are made with the fingers while resting on the large one.
Segmental massage of the sacro-lumbar region is performed with the movement upwards along the line along the spine. Next, the functions of the fingers change. The masseur performs circular movements with the thumbs of his fingers while resting on all the others. The specialist can also stand on the right side of the patient. But the direction of the massage should not change. The movement of the hands is in this case carried out from the bottom up.
The next technique is stroking. It is carried out with one-sided action on the patient's body with two or one hands. The specialist performs this technique from the middle of the chest. Then he switches to segmental massage of the spine. This method is performed with the help of the palms, the force of pressure of which gradually increases.
The stroking can be flat segmented. It is performed with the help of both hands, whose brushes are arranged in parallel and are directed to the cervical spine, and starts slightly below the area of the problem area. With this stroking, a segmental back massage is performed, as well as the chest and limbs.
The following method is called "Shifting away from yourself."Consider three varieties of this technique:
1. The specialist performs segmental massage of the spine, placing the palms on his both sides. In this case, the fold of the skin should remain between the large and all the other fingers. She is undergoing a massage. This specialist moves the surface from the bottom upwards, then from the right, then from the left side of the spine.
2. In the second method of "Shifting away from yourself", the masseur places his hands in the same way as in the first case. Only in this case the fold of the skin includes the area of three vertebrae. This site should be moved upwards from the lumbar spine to the cervical spine.
3. Having formed a fold of skin, the masseur starts moving one hand forward, and the other hand - backwards. In this case, the direction of the impact remains the same - from the bottom up.
The next technique is "Shifting on yourself."This technique is similar to the previous one, except for the direction of impact.
When performing this method, the massage therapist is located near the patient's head, performing movements on himself, giving most of the load to the index finger.
The next way of performing segmental action on the human body is called "Fork".The specialist performs segmental massage of the lumbosacral region. His hands move from bottom to top, reaching up to 7 cervical vertebra. This is done with the pads of the index and middle fingers. In this case, the specialist's hands are located on either side of the spinal column. The movements of the fingers during the execution of such a reception must be sliding with burdening.
Another way to conduct segmental effects on a patient's body is called "Moving".During this reception, the masseur with his right hand grasps the patient's body in the zone of the right buttock. In this case the palm of the left hand performs spiral movements in the direction from top to down to the spine, and the right - in the opposite direction.
The next step is called "Pressure".It is performed by the thumb of the right hand, burdening the movements with the left hand or the pads of all the other fingers. At the end of the procedure, the force of pressure must necessarily weaken with the arrangement of the hands along the spine.
Another method of segmental massage is "Stretching".At its carrying out the expert covers a muscle the hands located on distance of four-five centimeters from each other. After there are movements on the gradual stretching of tissues by moving the brushes forward and back. Then the position of the hands is changed, and the reception is repeated again.
During the segmental massage, a special technique is used when exposed to the near-oblong area. The specialist should stand on the right side of the patient and put his left hand on his forearm. After this, a series of small grindings is carried out. Such movements are carried out with the help of four fingers of the right hand( without a large one).The reception starts from the widest back muscle and ends with the outer edge of the scapula. Further rubbing continues. To do this, use the thumb of the right hand, which moves from the inner edge of the scapula, reaching the level of the shoulder. The massage ends by kneading and rubbing the upper zone of the trapezius muscle( to the nape of the neck).After the specialist passes into the area of the right scapula. At the end of this part, the massage moves slightly lower. It moves to the subscapular zone.
When segmental massage is used and reception, called "concussion of the pelvis."In this case, the expert works with both hands. He has them on the iliac crests of the pelvic area. Then, with the help of short lateral oscillatory movements, the hands move to the spine. Such movements and produced a concussion of the pelvis.
In segmental massage there is also a method of stretching the chest. It starts with classic stroking, as well as triturating of intercostal spaces. Further, the patient makes a deep exhalation, during which the masseur must forcefully squeeze the patient's chest. Direction of the hands of a specialist during the execution of this technique is different. When exhaled, they slide to the sternum, and when inhaled, they slide to the spine. The main condition for the patient is not to hold his breath. For this purpose, the masseuse should give the commands "Breath" and "Breath".It is worth mentioning that such a reception excites the patient's breathing.
On overly strained areas of the tissue and muscles of the neck it is recommended to perform a double gable-shaped ring reception. In this case, the technique of execution completely coincides with the one that exists in classical massage.
A sensory massage requires certain rules:
1. Each of the receptions should be carried out gently, rhythmically and without any sudden movements.
2. When assigning a course of segmental massage, the stage of the existing pathological process should be taken into account.
3. During the procedure it is prohibited to use lubricants, as they will reduce the sensitivity of the tissues.
4. The procedure can be performed only after studying the physiology and anatomy of a person.
5. In its length, the segmental massage session should not be less than twenty minutes.
6. Before starting manipulations, the patient should be notified of the feelings that await him during and after the session.
7. Initial exposure should be performed on those sites that lie near the affected segments.
8. The efforts of the masseur during the session should increase in the direction from the surface to the deep layers of tissue.
9. Correctly performed segmental massage causes warming and redness of the skin, a sense of relaxation and ease, and also relieves painful sensations.
receptions In case of segmental massage, it is important to follow a certain order of exposure.
The procedure is as follows:
- back massage;
- massage of the most painful areas of the pelvis and extremities, the head and the gross cell, as well as the head;
- massage of tissues lying in the surface layers;
- massage of deeper zones;
- massage from the periphery to the vertebral column in the region of the exit of roots of the nervous system.
Scientists have found out that by performing foot massage, you can get rid of many diseases. After all, they are called without any exaggeration an anatomical map of the human body. It is at the feet that there are reflex points of all systems and organs.
Also experts believe that the person's health is beneficially affected by facial massage. After all, it also presents all the points that have a connection with internal organs. So, the massage of the cheeks facilitates the work of the lungs.
Soft touch to the skin like even animals. So, whales can stick their heads out of the water and allow a person to iron themselves for several hours.