Pancreatitis: what is this disease, causes, symptoms, treatment
One of the most known diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, along with gastritis and ulcer, is pancreatitis. What is this disease, will help to understand any gastroenterologist.
The causes of the problem
Pancreatitis specialists call pancreatic inflammation. This disease occurs against the background of eating fatty or spicy foods, constant overeating, alcohol abuse.
The causes of the development of the disease include:
- pancreatic vascular disease;
- inflammation in the abdominal cavity;
- infectious diseases.
Pancreatitis can begin:
- in the formation of sand or stones in the ducts of the gland;
- for problems with the gallbladder;
- due to inflammation of the papilla, in which the duct connecting the pancreas and duodenum is located.
Often against a background of acute cholecystitis begins pancreatitis. What is this disease and how it manifests, every person should know, because timely treatment helps not only to recover quickly, but also to prevent possible fatal outcome.
It is possible to suspect a developing disease yourself if you know what symptoms are accompanied by acute and chronic pancreatitis. It is important to understand how treatment should be carried out.
Acute pancreatitis is a life-threatening disease. Its main symptom is acute pain localized in the upper abdomen. She can give in the back. In addition, the disease is accompanied by other signs - nausea, vomiting, fever. In a number of patients, jaundice begins.
Pain can be either cutting or blunt, and it does not go away on its own. As the disease develops, discomfort increases and may even cause a pain shock. If the entire gland is affected, then the sensations are girdled. They can also be localized in both the right and left hypochondrium.
Vomiting does not bring relief, despite the fact that it can be frequent enough. The contents may contain bile. Characteristic signs of pancreatitis are dry mouth, hiccups, belching. The patient's condition with acute pancreatitis deteriorates rapidly. The patient can have a fever, lower blood pressure, and a cold sweat. In the language you can see an abundant raid. At the same time the skin becomes pale, down to earthy-gray color, facial features are sharpened.
Other forms of the disease
Despite the fact that acute pancreatitis is a deadly disease, often the recovery begins spontaneously. If a person does not abuse alcoholic beverages, then the gland tissues are not destroyed, and no irreversible changes occur.
Sometimes pain can indicate that a slightly different disease develops. Chronic pancreatitis is also accompanied by a feeling of discomfort, a violation of the digestive system. The chair becomes oily with a distinct odor. When the disease becomes noticeable weight loss, there are signs of a lack of vitamins.
Chronic form of pancreatitis can cause diabetes. After all, when it starts to break down cells that produce insulin. This form begins often after the acute stage of the disease course left untreated.
Physicians separate reactive pancreatitis. What kind of a disease is it, not everyone will be able to understand without consulting a specialist? After all, it begins against the background of an acute illness of another organ of the digestive system. Therefore, the symptoms can be blurred, mixed with signs of other diseases.
Diagnosis of diseases
An examination is necessary to establish an accurate diagnosis. For example, on ultrasound, you can see what the pancreas looks like. Symptoms and treatment are closely interrelated. Therefore, an important role is given to the conversation with the patient, if, of course, he is able to speak.
Mandatory examinations include not only ultrasound, but also check the level of enzymes. To do this, examine the blood and determine the concentration of amylase and lipase. Computed tomography is used as an additional diagnostic method in clinics.
Definition of the chronic form of pancreatitis
When a patient contacts a gastroenterologist with complaints of pain, nausea, oily stool, the doctor will prescribe a series of examinations. Check the level of elastase in feces, the presence of undigested fat. In the presence of steatorrhoea, they speak of malfunctions in the pancreas.
It is also prescribed ultrasound diagnosis for the correct diagnosis. To confirm or refute the conclusion in doubtful cases will help tomography. Also, if necessary, the test is carried out with the help of special preparations, the action of which is directed to stimulation of the pancreas. Given that the chronic form of the disease leads to the development of diabetes, it is important to check the level of glucose in the blood serum. It is necessary to examine the patient, as complications of pancreatitis can develop.
Classification of the disease
Physicians separately distinguish several types of chronic pancreatitis. Depending on the clinical manifestations, it can be asymptomatic, tumor-like, dyspeptic or painful.
Establish a specific form of the disease can - after a comprehensive examination - an experienced gastroenterologist. With dyspepsia, the patient has chronic diarrhea, he suffers from bloating and weight loss. The pseudo-tumoral form resembles pancreatic cancer in symptoms. It is characterized by jaundice of the skin and sclera.
The most strange form is considered asymptomatic pancreatitis. The stages of the disease pass unnoticed for the patient himself - there is practically nothing to worry about. Pathology can progress for several years, with irreversible changes in the tissues of this organ beginning.
Painful form of chronic pancreatitis is characterized by the fact that after every intake of fatty, spicy food or alcohol, the patient is worried about severe discomfort.
Having felt pain for the first time, it's difficult to diagnose "pancreatitis" yourself. What is this disease, as a rule, the doctor already tells the patients. But, knowing the signs of ailment, it is easier to determine the tactics of actions.
First of all, you must give up food and water. All this only irritates the pancreas even more. You need to know that taking familiar antispasmodics or analgesics in this case is useless. A little to reduce the discomfort you can, if you try to relax and lie down. Also, you can apply cold to the sore spot.
Please note that taking any medication can only lubricate the clinical picture and complicate the diagnosis.
In the chronic form of pancreatitis, which is accompanied by regular seizures, it is important to remember the need to follow a diet, avoid stress and completely eliminate alcohol.
Treatment of the acute form of
There are basic rules for treating the disease. First it is necessary that the pancreas is restored. Symptoms and treatment are determined by an experienced gastroenterologist.
When acute it is important to completely stop eating for 3 days. During this period, only the intake of water, unsweetened weak tea and broth of wild rose is allowed. Remove inflammation and swelling with a cold warmer, applied to the pancreas. It is also important to observe complete peace. This can reduce the intensity of blood flow in internal organs, including in the pancreas.
Pain can be removed with the help of narcotic analgesics. Also, intravenously injected saline solutions, plasma, means "Albumin", "Reopoliglyukin."In an acute period, enzyme inhibitors are recommended - Gordoks, Kontrikal.
Assign also such drugs in pancreatitis, like "Omeprazole", "Kwamatel."With a purulent or severe form of the disease, antibiotics are selected. Used cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones.
In some cases, surgery is indicated. This is necessary for destructive pancreatitis, signs of the inflammatory process in the peritoneum and in the absence of the result of conservative treatment.
Chronic pancreatitis: treatment options
Regardless of the type and form of the disease, it is necessary to treat it under the guidance of a gastroenterologist. One of the main recommendations is the refusal of alcohol and smoking. Special enzyme replacement therapy is also prescribed. At the initial stage, when the pains just appeared, you can use antispasmodics Drotaverin, No-shpa, Sparex, Duspatalin. The use of drugs aimed at suppressing the production of enzymes by the pancreas, for example, Octreotide, is shown. A short course can be used antisecretory funds "Diakarb", "Omeprazol".
It is important to follow a lifelong diet with no fatty, spicy, fried foods. It is also indicated if chronic biliary pancreatitis has developed. This disease is characterized by the fact that it begins with a blockage of bile ducts. Treatment in this case can be carried out in an operative way. Perhaps such patients need to remove the gallbladder.