Adenoviral conjunctivitis: symptoms and treatment. Than to treat a conjunctivitis
Infectious viral diseases are highly contagious and prevalent. These pathologies can occur with equal frequency in both children and adults. Most often, the SARS group affects the mucous membranes. They include the nasopharynx, tonsils, conjunctiva. Sometimes viral infections occur with the syndrome of gastric and intestinal dyspepsia. Diseases of the group are similar in clinical picture. Nevertheless, each of the pathologies has characteristic features. For example, with adenovirus infection, the upper respiratory tract and conjunctiva of the eyes are affected. In most cases, this pathology develops in children. It is they who in the first place often get adenoviral conjunctivitis. Symptoms and treatment of infection differ slightly from other SARS.Should know how to deal with this disease, not only doctors, but also kindergarten teachers, as well as parents. After all, timely treatment and preventive measures help to avoid the spread of infection.
What is Acute Adenoviral Conjunctivitis?
Conjunctivitis is an inflammatory lesion of the mucous membrane of the inner surface of the eyelids. This disease often accompanies catarrhal pathologies. In addition, there are such respiratory infections, in which the inflammation of the eyelids comes to the fore. Adenoviral conjunctivitis belongs to such pathological conditions. Symptoms and treatment of this disease are slightly different from infections caused by bacteria. The main clinical manifestations of pathology are lacrimation and reddening of the eyes. In addition, adenovirus infection manifests itself and a number of other symptoms. Than treating conjunctivitis, depends on the etiology of the disease. If the cause is ARVI, antiviral treatment is prescribed. Therefore, do not use antibacterial eye drops at the first sign of inflammation. How long adenoviral conjunctivitis is treated depends on the state of the immune system. In most cases, symptoms of SARS last for 5-10 days.
Etiological factors of the disease development
This disease is caused by a virus from the ARVI group. The causative agent was discovered in the middle of the 20th century. It is known that adenovirus possesses high resistance to low temperature and many disinfectants. This is due to the presence of a special shell - the capsid, which protects the virus from damage. Inside is double-stranded DNA, which contains genetic information about the microorganism. The virus contains 3 factors of aggression. Among them:
- Antigen A. This complement is a binding pathogenic factor. Its effect is due to the suppression of phagocytosis, that is, the process of capture of microorganisms by cells of the immune system.
- Antigen B. Causes intoxication of the body.
- Antigen C. This pathogenic factor is collected on the surface of blood cells - erythrocytes.
Adenovirus is killed by high temperatures( boiling).Also it is sensitive to some antiseptic agents.
Pathogenesis of adenoviral conjunctivitis
When the pathogen penetrates the body, inflammatory changes in the upper respiratory tract develop, signs of intoxication, as well as adenoviral conjunctivitis. Symptoms and treatment of infection are similar to other respiratory diseases. The mechanism of disease development is due to the antigenic structure of the virus. The entrance gate for infection is the mucous membrane of the nasal passages, pharynx and conjunctiva. It is there that the adenovirus multiplies. As a result of the pathogen the mucous membranes become inflamed. In addition, adenovirus can penetrate into the lymph nodes and intestines. For this reason, the clinical picture can be different. Nevertheless, the development of adenoviral conjunctivitis is typical for this disease. When the eyelids and sclera get on the mucous membrane, there is an increase in the permeability of the cell membranes. As a result, edema and exudative phenomena develop. Due to the presence of antigen C in the structure of the causative agent, erythrocyte destruction can occur. This is manifested by injection of the sclera, hemorrhages. Adenoviral conjunctivitis develops with the same frequency in both the female population and among men. Children get sick more often than adults. The infection is transmitted by airborne droplets. The source is the infected person.
Clinical picture with adenoviral conjunctivitis
To distinguish the disease from other types of SARS, it is necessary to know the clinical features that characterize adenovirus infection. Conjunctivitis may occur in other colds. Nevertheless, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes is considered more typical for adenovirus infection. Conjunctivitis is manifested by the following symptoms:
- Redness of the eyes, swelling on the side of the lesion.
- Itching and burning.
- Blepharospasm - the upper eyelid on the affected side is omitted.
- The appearance of serous discharge on the conjunctiva. When untimely treatment, bacterial infection is attached. In this case, the exudate becomes purulent.
- Sensation of foreign body in the eye.
It is worth remembering that the development of conjunctivitis is preceded by an initial period of the disease, which lasts 5-7 days. At this time, intoxication syndrome predominates( fever, loss of appetite, weakness), signs of rhinitis and pharyngitis. Sometimes there is an increase in cervical lymph nodes and dyspepsia.
Clinical forms of adenoviral conjunctivitis
At first, the inflammatory disease is observed in one eye. If not taken immediately, then within two to three days, bilateral adenoviral conjunctivitis develops. How long the disease lasts depends on how quickly the treatment is started. When joining a bacterial infection, conjunctivitis may occur up to 2 weeks. If the treatment is started on time, the symptoms can take place within 5 days. Depending on the clinical form, the following are isolated:
- Catarrhal adenoviral conjunctivitis. It is characterized by minor signs of inflammation( moderate reddening) and unexpressed exudation. Complications in most cases is not observed.
- Follicular adenoviral conjunctivitis. Characterized by the appearance of small eruptions on the inner surface of the eyelid. In some cases, the follicles are large, covering the entire mucosa of the eye. The surface of the century is hyperemic, an injection of sclera is noted. Adenoviral glandular conjunctivitis. A distinctive feature of this form is the formation of thin fibrin overlays covering the mucous membrane of the eye. They are usually removed with a gauze swab. In severe cases, the films are tightly welded to the mucous membrane. In this case, the disease is differentiated from one of the forms of diphtheria.
Course of pathology in adults and children: differences
In most cases adenoviral conjunctivitis in adults is characterized by an easy course. Most often it is combined with pharyngitis and rhinitis. Intoxication syndrome is not expressed strongly, body temperature reaches 37-38 degrees. According to the frequency of occurrence, the first place is occupied by the catarrhal form of conjunctivitis. With weakened immunity, lymphadenopathy and gastrointestinal disorders can be observed.
Adenoviral conjunctivitis in children is more common than in adults. Outbreaks of infection can occur in groups( preschools, boarding schools).Symptoms in middle-aged children do not differ from adults. With timely treatment, recovery occurs in 5-7 days. A feature of the disease in young children is the frequent attachment of bacterial infection, high body temperature, follicular and membranous form of inflammation.
Diagnosis of Adenoviral Conjunctivitis
To detect adenoviral conjunctivitis, a study is performed to separate from the eyes, nose, a smear from the pharynx is taken. Also for the diagnosis is of great importance the anamnesis of the disease. Typical features of adenovirus infection are: intoxication and catarrhal phenomena that precede conjunctivitis. Most often the symptoms develop a few days after contact with the patient. In addition to virological research, serological diagnostics are performed: complement fixation, indirect haemagglutination, ELISA.
Adenoviral conjunctivitis: symptoms and treatment of pathology
Etiological treatment of the infection is antiviral drugs. They include medicines "Remantadin", "Anaferon", "Arbidol", etc. Than to treat a conjunctivitis caused by an adenovirus infection? The drug "Ophthalmoferon" is considered to be the drug of choice for inflammation of the eye mucosa. In addition, treatment depends on the symptoms of the disease. Such a sign, like a purulent discharge from the eye, is the reason for prescribing antibacterial drugs. These include ointments containing medicines "Erythromycin", "Gentamicin".If the symptom of the disease is the appearance of films on the mucous membrane of the eye, a local treatment is recommended. Rashes are removed with the help of gauze tampons moistened in warm boiled water. Antimicrobial agents are then used. For example, eye drops "Albucid", "Tziprolet".
Complications of adenoviral conjunctivitis
Complications of conjunctivitis caused by adenovirus infection are rare. More often they occur in people with a weakened immune system, with a filmy form of the disease. Complications include: keratitis, bacterial conjunctivitis, otitis, scars on the mucous membrane of the eye.
Prevention of adenovirus infection
Preventive measures include the isolation of patients from the team, anti-epidemic measures( room ventilation, sanitation).After contact with infected people, the use of immunostimulating drugs is recommended. They include medicines "IRS-19", "Anaferon".It is also recommended to lubricate the nasal passages with oxolin ointment during the outbreak of ARVI.