How to help? Hypertensive crisis

Modern medicine has reached great heights in the development of cardiology, but the hypertensive crisis is still the main and main problem. Hypertension is people who have developed hypertension( AH).According to statistics, every second hypertensive patient suffered a hypertensive crisis.

Arterial hypertension is a disease associated with increased blood pressure( arterial pressure) and with subsequent changes in internal organs. It is accepted to classify hypertension according to three main criteria:

  • according to blood pressure level: normal, optimal;borderline, easy( 1) degree of arterial hypertension, moderate( 2), severe( 3)( more than 180/110);
  • downstream: benign( slow developing) and malignant( fast developing);
  • on etiology: primary( essential), secondary( symptomatic), for example, with kidney blockage, admission of glucocorticoids and contraceptives, adrenal diseases.

The cause for arterial hypertension can be: emotional stress, mental stress, head trauma, salt abuse, smoking, alcohol, hypodynamia, advanced age, climacteric period, atherosclerosis and obesity.

The main symptom of this disease is pain localized in the occipital region, combined with a feeling of a heavy and "plague" head. Not infrequently, patients suffer from a decrease in mental activity, increased irritability and emotionality, poor sleep, shortness of breath, and poor eyesight.

If you do not treat arterial hypertension, then complications necessarily occur: cardiac asthma, hypertensive crisis, pulmonary edema, heart attack, stroke.

What is the hypertensive crisis? This is an unexpectedly sharp jump in pressure to the maximum number with a general deterioration in the person's condition. The following factors can provoke a crisis: nervous stress, weather change, improper nutrition( abuse of salt, fried, fatty foods), physical activity, alcohol consumption.

In therapeutic practice, three types are distinguished: a first-order crisis( hyperkinetic), a second-order crisis( hypokinetic), and eukinetic( the most complex and severe form).

Hypertonic crisis of the first order. As a rule, it occurs in patients at an early stage of hypertension. Signs of hypertensive crisis develop suddenly, as a rule, against a background of satisfactory( good) health. There is a headache predominantly of a pulsating nature, dizziness, vomiting, chills, convulsions, as well as tachycardia and elevated systolic pressure. This state can last from a few hours to a day.

The second-order crisis develops at later stages and its characteristic feature is a gradual increase in symptoms. In patients, there is headache, drowsiness, lethargy, deterioration of hearing and vision, and diastolic pressure also increases.

Eukenetic crisis. For him, the appearance of a patient is typical: a violation of sensitivity, motor impairment, inhibition, speech disorders, seizures, as well as an increase in both systolic pressure and diastolic pressure.

Help with hypertensive crisis should be provided immediately. To start the patient must be laid with a raised head. Provide access to fresh air and conduct distracting therapy. It can be: mustard plasters on the sacrum or calf muscles, canister collar, hot leg, can and hand baths. You can give nitroglycerin to the tongue, clonidine( 0.2) or nifedipine( 10 mg).And also urgently call a therapist or an ambulance.

Provided timely assistance - a pledge of a speedy recovery and saving lives.