Hemorrhoidal stroke: causes and consequences
According to the international classification of ailments, there are two main types of strokes. These include hemorrhoidal and ischemic. Each of these pathologies is a complex and dangerous violation of the blood circulation of the brain.
The first type of stroke is associated with blockage of blood vessels and the cessation of blood circulation in full or in part. Hemorrhagic( hemorrhoidal) stroke can be characterized as intracranial hemorrhage. This type of brain damage in accordance with the ICD is assigned code 10.
What is a hemorrhoidal( hemorrhagic) stroke?
As a rule, a hemorrhoidal stroke, the consequences of which directly depend on the initial causes of the disease, occurs due to pathological changes in the structure of blood vessels. Atrophic and necrotic phenomena caused by the brain damage that has already happened, in turn, determine the further clinical picture. To understand what processes and how the hemorrhoidal stroke occurs, what it is and what types of the disease exist, it is necessary to understand in more detail.
To classify hemorrhagic stroke is accepted by the nature of the occurrence. There are four types of brain lesions:
- A parenchymal insult of the hemorrhagic type is the most complex type of disease. Damage to blood vessels due to the parenchyma mainly causes intense, hard-to-stop bleeding.
- Subcortical stroke of the hemorrhagic type - happens as a result of prolonged hypertension or chronic increases in blood pressure. The most common place of hemorrhage is the contact of the temporal and parietal lobes.
- Subarachnoidal hemorrhagic stroke - occurs due to rupture of vascular aneurysms. The etiology of the disease is associated with arterial bleeding, where the blood fills the cavity between the soft and arachnoid medulla. The main cases of this type of stroke are craniocerebral trauma. In particular, in a newborn, a subarachnoid stroke can be caused during prolonged maternal labor and trauma to the head.
- Arachnoidal hemorrhagic stroke is similar to the previous type of hemorrhage. It is distinguished only by the cause of hemorrhage. As a rule, such a hemorrhoidal stroke is provoked by rupture of benign cystic tumors.
The direction of the course of medical inpatient treatment is attributing the disease to one of the above species. Having diagnosed a hemorrhoidal stroke, the forecast will not be able to immediately make any doctor. Regardless of the type of brain damage, the symptoms and course of the disease have significant similarities. With the help of a phased examination, it is possible to determine the degree of effectiveness of drugs and the rationality of conducting a surgical operation.
Types of hemorrhagic-type strokes due to the onset of
The following classification of hemorrhagic hemorrhage is defined as the variety of the disease for reasons of its development. Since the chances of recovery are directly related to the etiology that caused the hemorrhoidal stroke, the causes of brain damage are of great importance both in the course of emergency treatment and in the process of long-term rehabilitation. Separate them into the following groups:
- Traumas caused by injuries - in this case the area of damage to brain cells is predetermined by the location of the injury, its volume, and the degree of damage.
- Caused by a sudden jump in blood pressure - there is a rupture of the vascular cavity( this can be capillaries, veins and larger arteries).Chronic and prolonged hypertension contributes to the gradual thinning of the vascular walls. With increased permeability and the next increase in pressure, there is a hemorrhoidal stroke, the consequences of which are difficult to predict.
- Caused by vascular aneurysms - pathology often occurs as a result of loss of elasticity of arterial walls, which in itself is a consequence of developing aneurysm.
- Veins caused by occlusion - major or main veins due to obstruction affect the intensity of the flow of blood.
- Drug-induced medications are usually a hemorrhoidal stroke that occurs due to improperly initiated drug therapy with an overdose of narcotic drugs or severe alcohol intoxication. Uncorrected medical practices can lead to the development of a stroke.
It is also worth noting that the risk of a re-attack is most likely within the first two weeks after the first stroke. The first year after the transferred disease there is a chance of a repeat hemorrhage. In order to avoid relapse, the patient is prescribed a lifelong course of medications.
Symptomatic of cerebral hemorrhage
Considering a hemorrhoidal stroke, what is it, it is necessary to stop and on its main symptoms. A picture of brain tissue damage can be represented by collecting a successive chain of certain phenomena.
The first thing that happens is the rupture of the tissues of the vessels that could not stand the increased pressure on their walls. Suddenly the bleeding that opens suddenly fills the neighboring brain cavities. At this point, the hemorrhoidal stroke( photo attached for clarity) is felt by a person as an acute attack of a headache.
Almost immediately, edema of meninges begins. The swelling of the brain stem is a consequence of the inhibition of the functions of the nerve tissues. Extensive bleeding often leads to the development of hydrocephalus or occlusive hydrocephalus. Head size increases, intracranial hematoma builds up, which prevents normalization of circulating processes of spinal activity. At this stage, a hemorrhoidal stroke is extremely dangerous. Coma( who survived after such complications, face many difficulties) - a common phenomenon associated with the unfavorable course of the disease.
In addition, the formation of a hematoma affecting the cerebral department ends up for the patient with a disability in almost 90% of cases. Speech dysfunction and respiratory failure are virtually indestructible.
Atrophy and death of the brain tissue with timely provision of medical care, namely, surgical intervention, play a huge role. With small bleedings, the chances of a full recovery are present, all the lost functions of the brain can be restored. However, with massive hemorrhages, there may be irreparable necrotic processes. The tissues of the brain cease to function, and then death occurs. Lethal outcome is possible in a few hours after the attack, if damaged areas of the cerebral cortex, controlling the processes of breathing and the work of the cardiovascular system.
Extensive bleeding does not leave a chance of recovery in the absence of emergency trepanation of the skull.
How to recognize a stroke?
Because it is impossible to visually determine hemorrhagic stroke, patients' description of their own well-being during active development of the disease allows doctors to establish a preliminary diagnosis and a preliminary degree of lesion. In addition, long before the examination within the walls of a specialized medical institution, doctors have the opportunity to provide qualified assistance that helps to reduce the intensity of complications.
Any person should be aware of the symptoms associated with the disease. A hemorrhoidal stroke, which manifests itself in an appropriate way, can be recognized and helped in a timely manner by yourself or a close patient. To characteristic attacks of brain damage carry:
- feeling of burning and suddenly growing pain;
- severe nausea, the urge to vomit;
- eyes become hypersensitive to bright light;
- changes in the conscious state: the patient can recover in the near future;
- in case of extensive hemorrhage, coma may occur;
- failure of the motor functions of the limbs partially or completely, epileptic seizures.
If a neuro-hemorrhoidal stroke occurs( as brain hemorrhage provoked by psychoemotional overstrain is called), epileptic seizures can be the main and only symptoms indicative of the disease.
How to help a victim of a stroke?
The slightest suspicion of hemorrhage should immediately cause appropriate actions in others. It is on them that the subsequent speed of rehabilitation of the patient depends. First of all, you should call an ambulance, but before her arrival, you must perform a number of actions that prevent the development of complications.
First, the victim must be laid in a horizontal position and raise his head 30 degrees. This is extremely important in order to ensure the outflow of blood from the brain.
Secondly, the head of the patient should be turned sideways. Having thus eased the victim's breathing, it is easy to control the onset of vomiting( it is dangerous for the masses to enter the respiratory organs).It is also important to give the patient the opportunity to breathe fresh air.
Thirdly, if the victim is transported alone, it must be transported in the most immobile state, by monitoring body temperature and pressure level.
Medical diagnosis of the disease
It is almost impossible to detect hemorrhagic stroke during a visual inspection. Despite the presence of characteristic symptoms, urgent measures to save the patient occurs only after an instrumental examination, since this disease has a similarity in manifestation with epilepsy, the development of cancerous and benign brain formations. Entered in the admissions department of the hospital, the patient is sent to:
- computed tomography( in the early stages of the disease, CT is considered an indispensable diagnostic method, while MRI is a more informative way of research);
- magnetic resonance imaging( used at all stages of hemorrhagic stroke treatment and has more informative information about the patient's condition, predictions of expected consequences, etc.).
Chances of recovery
As elderly patients are at risk, their recovery projections are very disappointing. Only in 25-40% of cases the treatment ends successfully, allowing to avoid a repeated attack and to achieve a partial restoration of vital functions.
The body's ability to work in people who underwent a hemorrhoidal stroke( treatment sometimes does not bring results), at this age is reduced to almost zero, which leads to inevitable death. Forecasting the further course of recovery after illness in young people is much more likely to be in positive dynamics.
Consequences of a stroke of hemorrhoidal type
After a hemorrhoidal stroke, the result of therapeutic measures is directly related to the severity of complications. Often the consequences of a hemorrhagic stroke are:
- pneumonia( caused, as a rule, by inactive lying position and impairment of respiratory functions triggered by atrophy or necrosis of tissues);
- sepsis( if the infection occurs in the circulatory system, a general lesion of the body may occur, most often this process is observed in the presence of a massive hematoma);
- pressure ulcers on the body( skin after the attack undergo a lack of blood supply and become supple to any irritant);
- thromboses( a decrease in the rhythm of the heart leads to the blood clots entering the bloodstream);
- coma( one of the most dangerous complications that a hemorrhoidal stroke can bring, a coma can last from a couple of hours to several years, the patient's brain functions are not completely restored).
As already mentioned, the probability of recurrence of an attack in the near future after the first hemorrhage remains considerable. In addition, the second blow is often the last, since its intensity is higher. Cases of healing after a hemorrhoidal stroke that happened repeatedly are real miracles.
Any stroke, including hemorrhagic, can not be called an independently developing disease. Vascular thrombosis, atherosclerosis and other pathological conditions of the cardiovascular system are the primary causes of hemorrhage in the brain cavity.
Briefly about the stroke treatment scheme in the hospital
Drug treatment of hemorrhagic stroke is the use of a complex of drugs, the primary mission of which is the prompt restoration of normal cerebral blood supply. The thing is that the absence for several minutes of oxygen, which is transported to the brain by a healthy person in a healthy person, is fraught with irreparable changes, necrosis and atrophy of tissues.
Here it is not so easy to find the right solution, because at first glance it may seem that everything is simple: you should increase the volumes of blood arriving to the cerebral membranes. However, this will only exacerbate the situation and complicate the patient's condition.
Among the drugs that contribute to the saturation of the affected tissues of the brain oxygen, doctors allocate "Actovegin."It acts locally, preventing the development of necrotic phenomena and enhancing metabolism.
Neo-protective agents and broad-spectrum medicines play an important role in the therapy of hemorrhagic stroke. If the damage to the meninges is accompanied by heart disease and the risk of thrombosis, it is impossible to do without antiaggregants: this kind of medication is a natural barrier to blood clotting. To preparations of new generation in this area carry "Этамзилат".
After the course of the main therapy, treatment comes in the recovery phase, where the main principle is the desire for the maximum rapid rehabilitation of the patient. Long-term treatment and recovery negatively affect the patient's condition, exerting a depressing effect on the psychoemotional level.
Since patients need a long recovery after a hemorrhoidal stroke, how many days of the hospital will be needed at least for partial rehabilitation, it is difficult to say. However, everyone has the opportunity to warn themselves and their loved ones in advance from a grave illness without ignoring medical appointments, dieticians' recommendations and leading a healthy lifestyle.
Recovery programs are developed by physicians individually. Depending on the age of the patient, the strength of the body to resist the disease and its consequences depends on the timing of the first positive results. Unfortunately, rehabilitation measures are dragged on for years, so it's worth the patience and perseverance.
However, from each rule there are exceptions, and in case of application of complex effective programs the patient can recover within a short period of time. In particular, with the non-extensive hemorrhage and the use of combined treatment programs consisting of physiotherapeutic procedures, acupuncture, physical training and massage courses, there were many cases in medical practice when patients returned to their former lives by almost 100%.
Recently, the trend of doctors and specialists in the rehabilitation of patients has been the inclusion of modern gymnastic directions in a complex of rehabilitation activities. Especially actual breathing exercises, yoga, pilates.
Healthy food - a step to recovery
Changing the style of nutrition is the second and important step in the rehabilitation and elimination of the consequences that the patient suffered from a hemorrhoidal stroke. What this means will become clear from the following list of products:
- meat of fatty varieties;
- smoked products;
- flour, sweet pastries, white bread.
Surely many people know that such components of the daily diet are detrimental to the state of the whole organism. Atherosclerosis - a disease of the vessels, in which they form atherosclerotic plaques, which prevent normal blood flow - in most cases became a provoking factor of hemorrhagic hemorrhage.
In the case of healing, life after a stroke can not be an exact copy of the previous one. The patient will have to constantly limit himself, not allowing the use of alcohol, tobacco smoking. Stress and nervous experiences must be avoided in the first place. In addition, regular examinations and visits to the therapist should become a permanent component of health-promoting measures.
To prevent a recurrent stroke of hemorrhagic type, doctors prescribe to patients stimulating, firming medicines, vitamin complexes. One of the most common drugs is "Cardiomagnolo".