What shows and how do abdominal ultrasound?
There are situations when a doctor prescribes an abdominal ultrasound for diagnosis. Many patients did not even hear such a definition. Therefore, a natural question arises: what does abdominal ultrasound mean? This is a method of research with which the doctor receives accurate information about the organs of the retroperitoneal space, the abdominal cavity, the excretory system and the kidneys.
If a woman is examined, the evaluation of gynecological organs is also performed, and in men - the prostate gland. Such diagnostics requires a certain preparation, no unpleasant sensations occur during its performance, and the result can be recognized immediately after the procedure. So what does abdominal ultrasound show and how is it performed? Let's try to figure this out.
The essence of the abdominal examination
ultrasound of the abdominal region allows to diagnose abdominal and pelvic abnormalities with the help of ultrasound. These waves begin to propagate at different rates in media of different density. At this time, a picture appears on the monitor of the device, which displays dense patches with echogenic inclusions of light color.
Abdominal ultrasound allows you to determine the boundaries of the body and by its echogenicity reveals pathology. At the same time, such diagnostics are indispensable in many cases, since it allows very accurately to show the state of organs in the abdominal cavity, as a result of which a correct diagnosis is made.
What can be detected by abdominal examination?
If an abdominal ultrasound is prescribed, which organs are examined and what pathological processes do they determine?
- liver - identify hepatitis, cyst, cirrhosis, abscesses, tumors, as well as fatty degenerations of this organ;
- gallbladder - determine the size of the stones and their amount inside the bladder or in its bile ducts, and also reveal abnormal development of the organ itself, recognize cholecystitis and empyema;
- pancreas - determine the presence and size of stones inside the ducts, abscesses, inflammation, various types of tumors, necrosis and anomalies in development;
- abdominal aorta - recognize aneurysms, abnormal branching or divergence;
- spleen - identify injuries, hemorrhages, and changes in its size.
If the patient is properly prepared, you can see not only the stomach, but also the primary department of the duodenum.
What are the symptoms of an abdominal examination?
The doctor directs the patient to abdominal ultrasound in the following cases:
- when the patient complains of acute and frequent pain in the right side, in the region of the ribs that occur paroxysmally;
- if the pain is shinier;
- when the patient complains of a bitter taste in his mouth;
- if the stomach is very sore for a long time;
- for problems with the prostate;
- if a patient has a feeling of heaviness and discomfort in his right side;
- for problems with female genital organs.
Preparing for an abdominal examination of
If a patient has previously undergone an irrigoscopy or gastrography procedure, the patient must necessarily warn the doctor about this, since barium is used in these cases. This is very important, since particles of this substance may still be in the intestines, leading to a distortion of the result and complicating the examination process.
It is also very important in preparation for the study to follow a diet and use medications. These methods are aimed at reducing and eliminating gases in the intestines, which can close other organs.
The correct preparation for the study includes the following recommendations:
- Three days before the procedure, it is necessary to go on a diet, completely excluding from the diet products that increase the formation of gases in the body. They include: beans, sour-milk products, peas, soda, cabbage, bread, sweets, fresh vegetables and fruits.
- During the same three days, it is necessary to take medicines that eliminate gases from the intestine. To such preparations carry the activated coal or capsules "Espumizan".On the day of the study, a double amount of the drug is taken without washing with water.
- In the evening before the procedure, you can take a mild laxative or put an enema with a little cool water.
- Abdominal ultrasound is performed only on an empty stomach.8 hours before the test, you can not take any food, even in minimal quantities. Drinking water is also prohibited 6 hours before the procedure, as it also distorts the results. Diabetics are allowed a small snack.
- If a gallbladder is to be examined, it is advisable not to smoke before the procedure. Nicotine can cause reflex spasms of the organ and distort the diagnostic data.
- A pelvic examination( uterus, prostate, bladder) is performed with a filled bladder.40 minutes before the procedure, you need to drink 400 ml of liquid.
In case of severe unbearable pain, the examination should be started immediately, without prior preparation.
How is abdominal ultrasound done?
After going into the office, the patient undresses to the waist, then lies on the couch. The doctor applies a special gel to the abdominal region without color and odor. This is done, as there will be no air gap when the sensor moves.
By examining the internal organs, depending on the viewing angle, the doctor may ask the patient to strain the press, hold his breath, inhale as deeply as possible or, on the contrary, exhale completely. The procedure lasts 20 minutes, and the result can be found immediately.
Features of abdominal ultrasound of female organs
If an emergency diagnosis is performed, the patient must inform the date of the last menstruation, but in order to obtain more complete information, a diagnosis may be required in the following days.
In inflammatory processes in the appendages of the uterus( adnexitis, salpingo-oophoritis), the study can be conducted any day. If there is an expansion of the fallopian tubes, the diagnosis is repeated immediately after menstruation.
To identify endometriosis, ultrasound is prescribed in the second half of the menstrual cycle. If endometrial hyperplasia is diagnosed, the test is repeated immediately after the end of menstruation.
If there is a suspicion of myoma of the uterus, ultrasound is performed in the first phase of the cycle.
The study after the abortion is performed immediately after the end of the next menstruation. If there are pain or bleeding, the diagnosis is carried out on any day.
Thus, abdominal ultrasound is a study of a wide range. With the help of such diagnostics, it becomes possible to examine almost all organs of the small pelvis and abdominal cavity. This type of examination is indispensable in pregnancy, as well as in the case where it is impossible to conduct intracavitary ultrasound.