Decompensated diabetes mellitus - what is it? Symptoms and complications
Many people face such a diagnosis as decompensated diabetes mellitus. What it is? How dangerous is this form of the disease? Are there effective methods of treatment? Is it possible to prevent the onset of decompensation? The answers to these questions are important for many.
Compensated and decompensated diabetes mellitus: what's the difference?
To begin with it is necessary to understand the basic information. Today, many people face such a problem as decompensated diabetes mellitus. What it is?
If it is a compensated form of the disease, it implies that the patient's blood glucose level is normal. This indicator can be maintained with the help of medications( including insulin), proper diet, rest and sleep.
But for one reason or another, the disease can become complicated. Most often, decompensated type 2 diabetes mellitus is registered, although a similar course is possible with an insulin-dependent form of the disease( type 1).
Which indicators are important for determining the degree of compensation?
Several factors are taken into consideration during the diagnosis of this disease.
- Blood sugar is the most important indicator. Blood for examination is taken on an empty stomach. Normally, the result should range from 3.3 to 3.5 mmol / l.
- Conduct a blood test for glucotolerance. Two hours before the blood is taken, the patient takes a glucose solution. Normally, this figure should not exceed 7.7 mmol / l.
- It is important to determine the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin. During the analysis, it is possible to determine the ratio of hemoglobin molecules already in the compound with glucose to the total amount of hemoglobin. In healthy people, this indicator ranges between 3-6%.
- Urine is analyzed for sugar levels. Normally, glucose is not excreted together with urine. The permissible limit for diabetics is 8.9 mmol / l.
- It is important to determine the amount of low density cholesterol. In healthy people, this figure does not exceed 4 mmol / l.
- In the process of diagnosis, blood pressure is measured, because diabetes primarily affects the state of the vessels. As the decompensation processes worsen, blood pressure increases. It is worth recalling that in the norm this figure should not exceed 140/90 mm Hg. Art.
- To determine the level of triglycerides in the blood, you can calculate the likelihood of developing vascular complications in the patient.
- An important part of the diagnosis is the determination of the mass index, which should not normally exceed 24-25.Patients with diabetes mellitus( especially if it is a second type of disease) often suffer from some degree of obesity.
The main causes of decompensation
You already know about what factors pay attention, diagnosing decompensated diabetes mellitus and what it is. But what can trigger the beginning of decompensation?
As evidenced by the testimonials, the reasons are individual in each case. Physicians identify the following risk factors:
- malnutrition, overeating, eating foods prohibited in diabetes;
- improperly drawn up treatment plan, unauthorized use of BADs by the patient instead of prescribed medications;
- selection of an incorrect dose of insulin;
- refusal of insulin treatment;
- infectious diseases, which are accompanied by dehydration of the body;
- constant stresses, emotional overstrain.
Decompensated diabetes mellitus: symptoms of
Unfortunately, many people face such a diagnosis. What does decompensated diabetes mean? What symptoms are accompanied by this pathological process? The clinical picture has a number of features:
- there is a sharp weight loss;
- patients complain of rapid fatigue, persistent weakness and drowsiness;
- urge to urinate;
- is a characteristic feature of diabetes mellitus is dry mouth and strong thirst;
- is sometimes possible to disrupt visual analyzer functions.
If you have such symptoms, do not hesitate - you need to see a doctor, an endocrinologist. It is extremely important in this situation to constantly monitor blood glucose levels.
Possible complications in acute development of
decompensation How dangerous is decompensated diabetes mellitus? Complications are possible, and their list is quite large. The acute form of decompensation is dangerous, as it develops lightning fast - complications develop within a few hours, and sometimes even minutes.
- Hypoglycemia of the .This condition is accompanied by a sharp decrease in the level of sugar in the blood. Patients feel strong weakness. There is a feeling of severe hunger.
- Hyperglycemia. A sharp rise in the level of glucose, which is very dangerous, since it can lead to the development of a coma.
- Ketoacidosis .This condition is accompanied by a sharp increase in the concentration of sugar. Disturbance of metabolism leads to the formation of ketone bodies, which are toxic to the body.
- Glucosuria .Glucose begins to stand out with urine.
- Diabetic Coma .During diabetes, insulin levels decrease along with an increase in the level of sugar. Nevertheless, tissues, in particular, the structures of the nervous system, are not capable of utilizing glucose. The result is a coma.
Consequences of chronic decompensated diabetes
Chronic decompensated diabetes is extremely dangerous. Constant increase of blood glucose level negatively affects the condition of blood vessels, nerve endings and organs of vision. There are a number of dangerous complications, to which the chronic process of decompensation can lead.
- Nephropathy is a pathological kidney damage that is associated with increased internal pressure and persistent hyperglycemia. As evidenced by the reviews, in most cases this disease leads to disability.
- Microangiopathy - accompanied by the defeat of small blood vessels.
- Diabetic retinopathy is a severe form of microangiopathy. The disease is associated with damage to small vessels of the retina, which often leads to a complete loss of vision.
- Heart and vessel disorders , including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease.
What should I do? Is there an effective treatment?
Decompensated form of diabetes is extremely dangerous. Insulin levels and blood glucose levels are almost impossible to control with medication. Therefore, therapy in this case is reduced to the elimination of symptoms and complications. The patient needs constant observation. It is important to monitor the work of the heart, the level of sugar in the body, the functioning of the kidneys, etc.
You already know why decompensated diabetes is developing, what it is and what complications it can lead to. Certainly, this condition is dangerous and far from always subject to drug correction. That is why it is much easier to prevent the development of the stage of decompensation. You just need to follow a few simple rules.
- Patients with diabetes are recommended to refuse from sharp, flour and salty foods, as well as from food containing glucose.
- Do not enter the diet fried foods. Doctors advise cooking food for a couple or in the oven - so it is much more useful.
- It is worth paying attention to the diet - it is better to eat often, but in small portions.
- It is necessary to monitor the balance of consumed and consumed calories.
- An important part of the life of a patient with diabetes is physical activity. Of course, we are talking about feasible activities, whether it's morning running, swimming or just walking through the park.
- Specialists recommend to observe the correct mode of work and rest, as overwork affects the hormonal background and blood sugar level.
- It's worth thinking about yoga and meditation, as this helps you to deal with stress more easily.