Burn in the child: first aid and treatment
All young children actively learn the world around them. And even parental prohibitions can not always save prying kids from enough dangerous research. As a result, babies can have very different injuries. One of the most unpleasant moments is a child's burn. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to protect the baby from this trauma. Therefore, parents should know how to give the baby first aid.
Kinds of burns
The fearlessness and curiosity of small researchers is simply amazing. The children are not afraid of the fire. They are attracted by electrical outlets, admire beautiful bottles of chemicals. According to doctors, it is a child's burn - one of the most frequent reasons that parents turn to medical institutions. And most often these are injuries received in domestic conditions.
Burns can be:
- Thermal .These are injuries caused by exposure to high temperatures.
- Chemicals .They are caused by various means of household chemicals.
- Solar .The result of prolonged exposure to scorching rays.
- Electrical .Injuries resulting from improper use of household appliances or "research" outlets.
In any of these cases, the child must quickly and competently provide first aid. Of course, depending on the type of injury, the methods of treatment will differ slightly.
There is another important criterion that should be considered. It is necessary to be able to determine how serious a child's burn is. After all, in difficult situations, the baby immediately needs qualified medical help.
Allocate 4 levels of child burns:
- Only surface layers are affected. The damaged area reddens, swells. The child complains of pain and burning sensation in this area.
- Such injuries differ in the depth of the lesion. They cover not only the surface layer, but also the subcutaneous tissues. The child experiences severe pain, which lasts long enough. The second degree is characterized by the formation of thin-walled bubbles filled with a liquid.
- Defeat covers superficial and deep cutaneous tissues. Burns of the third degree are divided into the following species: A and B. The first variety is characterized by the formation of thick-walled blisters and scabs. However, healthy epithelial cells, hair bulbs and secretory glands are retained. Due to them, tissue regeneration takes place. For grade B, severe damage is characteristic. There may be purulent inflammation, necrosis of tissues. The burn is a moist open wound. After himself, he leaves a scar.
- This is the most difficult degree. It is charred and charred by scabs.
At home, only 1 and 2 degree injuries can be treated. Injuries of grades 3 and 4 require the patient to stay in the hospital.
Babies love to be near mom in the kitchen. But it is here that they face many dangers. Small researchers simply do not understand that there is boiling water in the cup, and they can reach for it. They do not think that there is a hot pan on the stove, and they stretch out their fingers to it.
As a result, tender baby skin is damaged. Burning a baby with boiling water is the most common domestic trauma. It is greatly exacerbated by the presence of clothing. Things quickly absorb the hot liquid and significantly worsen the effects of injury.
Sometimes a burn can occur with a metal hot object( touching a hot pan, iron).Such injuries are rarely deep. They almost never cover a large area. After all, the child is triggered by the instinct of self-preservation, and he sharply removes his hand from the hot object.
Parents should know if as a result of careless actions a child's burn has appeared, what to do in this situation.
First aid consists of the following activities:
- It is necessary to remove hot wet clothes as soon as possible from the baby. After all, she continues to burn the skin. Especially quickly you should act if things are synthetic. Take off your clothes very carefully, so as not to damage the covers on which blisters could appear, and not cause the baby even more discomfort. It is best to cut things and remove them immediately, until they stick to the skin. If the clothes are stuck to the body, do not open the cloth in any way.
- To relieve burning and reduce temperature, it is necessary to pour cold water on the damaged area. Continue to cool the burn for 10-15 minutes. It is strictly forbidden to use ice. This will significantly aggravate the trauma.
- Do not grease the wound with oily ointments, oil. Such actions contribute to the preservation of high temperature in the burn site. As a result, the damage significantly spreads in breadth and depth.
- Apply a gauze dressing to the burn site, after having wet it with cold water. Soda solution will alleviate the child's suffering. For 1 glass of water - 1 tsp.soda. Periodically the drying bandage should be watered with cold water. If there is no gauze at hand, you can use a bactericidal plaster to protect the wound from infection.
- When helping a child with a burn, a spray can be applied to the damaged area( after exposure to cold water): "Panthenol", "Levizol", "Levian".
- Excellent special gel napkins have proven themselves. They are most often used for burns of 2 degrees.
- It is strictly forbidden to open the blisters that have appeared. They protect the damaged area from germs and prevent loss of fluid.
- Do not treat the affected area with iodine or similar antiseptics.
- Even with small burns, it is recommended to give the child an analgesic( Panadol) and an antihistamine drug( Dimedrol, Claritin, Suprastin, Pipolphen).
Be sure to show your child a doctor! At the 3rd and 4th degree of burn, the appeal to specialists should be immediate. With such lesions, an ambulance should be called forth without delay.
This is another fairly common injury. Baby skin is very delicate. It can quickly burn. Sometimes it is enough to spend half an hour on the beach to have a sunburn in the child. Such damage is extremely unpleasant and dangerous. After all, to determine by touch or eye this injury is impossible. As a rule, a sunburn appears on the skin after a few hours.
That's why it is necessary to close the child from sunlight in the first days of staying on the beach. It is recommended to use special creams or lotions to protect the baby's skin. However, they should not be fully relied upon.
What should I do?
If you observe a sunburn in a child, then your actions should be as follows:
- Initially, try to make the pain as easy as possible. To do this, burn the burnt areas with Panthenol aerosol. A good effect will provide sour cream or kefir. You can resort to the help of green strong tea. Use a freshly brewed drink, necessarily chilled. Use a cotton swab to apply a lot of liquid on the burnt cover. This procedure is recommended to be repeated as often as possible.
- To reduce pain, give your child an analgesic: "Panadol".
If there is a fever or chills occur, contact the doctor without delay.
In any house contains a wide variety of chemicals. Of course, they should be stored in places that are not accessible to children. But if the baby got the forbidden bottle, it is likely that a chemical burn can develop in the child.
Acid damage can be determined by the following symptoms:
- Severe pain.
- A characteristic spot develops on the skin. When exposed to sulfuric acid, it acquires a dark gray or black color. Salt - leaves behind a gray shade. Nitric acid gives a patch of orange or yellow. Carbohydrate or acetic is characterized by a greenish tinge.
If the child's burn is triggered by alkaline, then the symptoms are:
- Severe pain
- Wet deep burn. Above it covers a light crust.
- There are often signs of intoxication of the body: nausea, headache.
First Aid Assistance
The main thing - do not panic. In addition, you need to know how to help the child with a burn.
Your actions should be as follows:
- Immediately call an ambulance.
- Thoroughly rinse the affected area with running cool water. This procedure should last at least 15-20 minutes.
- Apply a sterile bandage to the burn.
- If you are sure that the damage is caused by alkali, you can apply a cloth moistened with diluted vinegar( 1 part vinegar to 4 parts water) or boric acid( 1 tsp water - 1 tsp) on the damaged skin.
- If it is not possible to call a team of doctors, immediately take the child to a traumatology department.
This is an extremely serious injury. Electrical burns are characterized by deep lesions of tissues. In addition, they are fraught with serious consequences. Therefore, in such traumas, parents need to call an ambulance as soon as possible.
How to help a child
With such defeats, it is very important to act correctly and quickly. What should I do if an electrical burn occurs? The child( first aid must be provided immediately) must be saved.
This is the following:
- Eliminate the effect of current. It is strictly forbidden to grab the power source with your bare hands. An electrical appliance or wire must be discarded with a wooden stick. The child can be pulled over the edges of the clothes.
- If the baby does not have a palpitation or breathing, urgent resuscitation should be performed urgently. Do a heart massage and resort to artificial respiration.
- Immediately take the patient to the hospital.
Features of injuries in a child up to the year
Burns in children are dangerous because of their severe consequences. That's why with such injuries it is recommended to show the crumb to the doctor.
An important factor is the area of the lesion. If a burn of 1 or 2 degrees occupies an area of more than 8%( this is the size of the palm of the victim), then such injuries are assessed as severe and require a compulsory emergency call. But these conditions apply to children over 12 months old.
A child's burn up to a year is estimated somewhat differently. After all, in babies the skin is much thinner, differs developed blood and lymphatic network. Due to this, the covers have a higher thermal conductivity. Therefore, even a small burn can cause a baby to year deep damage. In infants with a damage of 3-5% of the skin, it is necessary to call an ambulance.
What medications can I use after a child's burn to relieve unpleasant symptoms? It is best to consult a doctor. A competent specialist will select the most effective means.
Most often with damage of 1, 2 degree, such drugs can help:
- "Panthenol". It is best to use an aerosol. He is able to help with any thermal burns. It is recommended to use it for solar injuries. It is allowed to apply the product to the skin with cracks and abrasions.
- "Olazol". The drug is an excellent analgesic. It protects against the development and reproduction of microorganisms. The agent provides acceleration of healing.
- "Solcoseryl". For the treatment of burn injuries use a gel or ointment. The product effectively fights against thermal damage. It will benefit if the child is burned in the sun.
- Gel anti-burn wipes. This means effectively cools the wound surface, anesthetizes it. The napkin ensures the destruction of microbes. This tool is very convenient to use. As required, it is easily replaced.
If at hand there is not a single medication, from the above, how to be? What can a child from burns?
In this case it is recommended to resort to the help of traditional medicine:
- When burning with boiling water, you can use raw potatoes. Tuber must be grated. Kashitsu placed on the affected area and covered with a bandage. Change the grated potatoes as it is heated.
- Cabbage leaf will significantly ease the unpleasant symptomatology. Burn the sheet and attach it to the burn. After a few minutes, the pain decreases. And after half an hour completely disappears.
- Benefit brings a freshly cut aloe leaf. It should be peeled off. This sheet is placed on the damaged area for 12 hours.
If your child is burned, the main thing is do not panic. Try to correctly assess the extent of damage and, if necessary, call an ambulance. Meanwhile, provide the correct first aid.