In some cases in medicine there is a need to use catheters - special tubes that are inserted into the cavity of the organs. Catheters are used to divert the contents of the organ, if necessary, to rinse the cavity, for insertion into the cavity of the drug substance. Catheters come in different lengths and are made from different materials. There are rubber catheters, metal, plastic. The thickness of the hole( diameter) is ranked by Sharjer - there are thirty sizes( numbers) that differ from each other by a third of a millimeter. When using catheters, it is important that they are sterile and do not cause inflammation in the cavity of the organ into which they are inserted. For this, they boil for thirty minutes and are stored under a sterile sheet for 24 hours.
The technique of insertion of catheters is not complicated, for example, soft catheters can be introduced by the average staff. Before the introduction into the cavity of the bladder, the catheter is lubricated with a fatty substance - Vaseline, Vishnevsky ointment. Introduction is slow, smooth. When meeting with the sphincter, preventing the introduction, do not push forward. It is necessary to wait for the relaxation of the sphincter and then to lead it further. If a catheterization is performed for a man with prostate adenoma, then a catheter with a curved spout is selected. The catheterization of the metal tools is done by the doctor, otherwise, if the catheter is inadvertently inserted, the integrity of the bladder can be disturbed and enter it further along a false path, which is completely unacceptable.
Most often catheters are used in urology, in order to ensure the outflow of urine. To do this, use the catheter Pezzer - one of the most popular in terms of its use in medical practice. It is made of rubber, and at the end it has an extension and two holes. The catheter is inserted quite simply - the probe is inserted into the canal so that the catheter is pulled at its end, then there is an injection into the cavity, after which the probe is removed, and the catheter straightens itself. It is optimal to insert a six-centimeter Pétzzer's catheter to ensure that its end is at a sufficient distance from the walls of the bladder and from the urethra. If the catheter is inserted too deeply, the end will rest against the tip of the bladder and there will be no urine. If the catheter is not inserted deep enough, it can cause unnecessary reflexion of the bladder. Pezzer's catheter is usually used before delivery to release the mother's bladder. Otherwise, a full bladder will prevent the baby from passing normally through the birth canal. The Pétzzer catheter is removed by pressing the urethra wall through the vagina. If a catheter is required to be placed permanently in women, the Pétzzer catheter is inserted into the opening above the pubis and outward.
If the urinary catheter is installed for a long time, then there is a risk of clogging small holes with salts. In addition, when deducing it from the stoma, the cap may come off.
Other troubles can occur if a subclavian catheter is used. It is usually injected into the subclavian vein for rapid resuscitation and intensive care. A subclavian catheter can cause complications, such as embolism of the vessel( ingress of air), clogging of the thrombus, development of a purulent-inflammatory process in the place of catheterization. In order for this to happen, careful maintenance of the tools is necessary. The subclavian catheter should be washed every five hours with a disinfectant solution, regardless of whether the catheter is involved in the administration of drugs, etc. Disinfect the skin around the catheter, and when sticking it with adhesive tape under the catheter, put a bactericidal tape. Only in case of competent care of medical instruments will it be possible to avoid complications during catheterization.