Why is low pressure dangerous? In humans, low blood pressure: causes of hypotension
There are not many people who think about how dangerous low pressure a person is. Moreover, in modern society, there is often a mistaken belief that the antagonist of hypotension - arterial hypertension - really threatens health. The development of heart failure, a violation of cerebral circulation - a list of the negative consequences of hypertension can continue indefinitely. However, this does not mean that low blood pressure does not pose a threat to the life of the patient.
What determines the level of blood pressure?
Blood, moving through the vessels, exerts pressure on their walls. The presence or absence of a generally accepted normal blood pressure index( 120/80) is predetermined by several factors:
- degree of vascular resistance;
- cardiac functionality;
- total blood volume.
Although many deviations from the standard values are not considered a pathology at all, since all systems and organs work as expected, than dangerous low pressure in humans, doctors have known for a long time.
What does blood pressure say?
In addition to external manifestations of this condition in the form of general weakness of the body, dyspnea, dizziness and loss of coordination, hypotension can cause more serious consequences. The first alarm signals received by the patient must necessarily serve as an excuse for applying for consultations with specialists. In addition, if the danger of low pressure has receded, which quite often lulls the vigilance of patients, this does not mean that there is no repetition.
In itself, blood pressure is an indicator capable of reporting abnormalities in the functioning of such vital organs as the lungs, heart, circulatory system. This predetermines the need for regular pressure measurements, especially since its magnitude is not static and constant. Find out what dangerous low blood pressure in a person can be, having become acquainted with the peculiarities of the blood circulation.
Systolic and diastolic pressure in a person
As is known, when a patient's pressure is measured, doctors make conclusions about his condition in two ways:
- Systolic pressure is the upper indicator showing the level of pressure during the discharge of blood into the aorta.
- Diastolic pressure - the lower index, fixes the moment of blood flow into the hollow veins.
If the first criterion is able to determine blood pressure during its transportation through the vessels from the heart to the rest of the vital organs, the second one speaks about its magnitude in the intervals between cardiac contractions. At the moment of short-term relaxation of the myocardium, the blood pressure is measured.
What is the normal pressure?
Probably everyone knows that 120/80 is the most usual indicator, which is considered an unconditional norm. Although recently, specialists with greater confidence began to assert that the most comfortable blood pressure for a person is 115/75. To determine what critical low pressure for a person is dangerous, difficult, as well as to find out the rate for the same person. The fact is that the arterial pressure, at which the patient's state of health is satisfactory, is a very individual value. It is practically impossible to establish with accuracy that this indicator is optimal for a particular person.
What is characteristic of low pressure?
Meanwhile, BP 90/60 doctors around the world consider unequivocally reduced. Whether low pressure for a person at such indicators is dangerous, in many respects depends on what he feels at this moment, what is the symptomatology.
The most common manifestations of hypotension, in which the thought of pathology immediately arises, is:
- Regular drowsiness, lethargy, rapid fatigue. Any activity( physical, mental) leads to instant fatigue, after rest and night sleep relief, as a rule, does not occur.
- Headaches( cephalalgia under reduced pressure often occupies the occipital and temporal lobes, the nature and intensity of the pain syndrome is similar to migraine: monotonous, pulsating or obtuse).
- Nausea, vomiting.
- Frequent dizziness, short-term loss of consciousness, impaired coordination of movements.
- Irritability, inattention, absent-mindedness.
Is low-pressure dangerous in humans? This can be determined on the basis of the above symptoms. Such signs of hypotension can bring enormous discomfort and suffering to the patient. How can this be avoided? You can prevent the development of pathology, especially if you are not at risk. But even if it is not so, it's still possible to help yourself. The reasons why systolic or diastolic blood pressure may fall are presented below.
Causes of low diastolic pressure
With reduced diastolic pressure, general signs of hypotension appear in the form of impotence, dizziness and nausea. The ideal indicator is the one that is less than systolic by 30-40 mm Hg. Art. Hence the establishment of a common norm of 120/80 with a difference of 40 mm Hg. Art. The diastolic value is considered low if there is more than 50 units between it and the systolic exponent.
Many patients do not immediately determine their low blood pressure, regularly suffering from symptoms of weakness. Even fewer people, having found out the disease, go with this problem to the doctor, since not everyone knows what dangerous low low pressure in a person is, especially if such a deviation does not cause significant troubles and inconveniences. The state of health of a person with low lower pressure depends on the causal factors that triggered changes in the circulation. The most common are:
- heart failure;
- renal failure or chronic adrenal disease;
- allergic reactions;
- pain shock;
- thyroid disorders.
How to prevent hypotension?
Special attention should be paid to low low pressure, the reasons of which are indicated above. How to increase the diastolic index, every person should know. After all, such knowledge may some day be useful to someone else.
Compliance with the rules of a healthy lifestyle, as well as sufficient time outdoors and moderate exercise - the main secret of normalizing diastolic blood pressure. Regular and full night sleep for 7-8 hours - no doubt, is also an important pledge of excellence. But taking medications with low diastolic pressure is a serious step, which is better done together with the attending physician.
Than low diastolic pressure threatens?
Than it is dangerous low diastolic pressure in a person, if its index is able to descend even to the level of 40 mm Hg. It is interesting for all patients with hypotension. Bad health is not all. The fact is that reduced blood pressure does not allow to deliver to the heart and brain the necessary volume of blood, and with it oxygen. The hypoxia of these vital organs is the main threat, which carries a low pressure in the blood vessels. A complication, such as a violation of peripheral circulation and cardiogenic shock, is a direct consequence of oxygen starvation.
Fainting and stroke also have a high probability of developing at critical rates of lower( diastolic) pressure. In addition, the cardinal restructuring of the arteries due to the prolonged course of hypotension ultimately leads to the transition of the disease to a more dangerous form of cardiovascular disease - hypertension. In this form, the ailment is much more difficult.
Causes of low systolic pressure
Diastolic indices below the norm indicate a possible development of serious pathological processes, primarily from the cardiovascular system. Meanwhile, low upper blood pressure is often associated with other causes, among them:
- tachycardia, arrhythmia, bradycardia( heart rhythm disturbances);
- pathological features of heart valve function;
- first trimester of pregnancy;
- excessive physical activity.
The systolic indicator gives detailed information that with what intensity the cardiac "pump" pushes out the blood. Within the limits of the norm, its value is about 110-120 mm Hg. Art. To understand what low pressure is dangerous for a person and how great a threat is, one can by critical indicators of both diastolic and systolic index. With extremely low blood pressure, the patient often loses consciousness. With a systolic 60 mm Hg. Art.gradually losing touch with reality, his eyes become cloudy, his legs become "wadded."It is important to have time to call someone to help as long as possible. To help the patient, it is necessary to lay it in such a horizontal position that the legs are above the level of the head.
Threat of low systolic pressure
The lowest pressure in a person is considered critical when its upper values are within 40-60 mm.gt;Art. The patient is already unconscious, and if such pressure remains for 7-8 minutes or more, then a person can leave this world. The heart rate also drops to a minimum and can be 45-60 beats per minute. The emergency call of an ambulance and the arrival of a team of doctors will give the patient a chance to recover. However, the consequences of the condition transferred by him can leave an indelible mark on life activity until the end of the day.
Danger to a pregnant woman
The risk of low blood pressure in systolic values is also present during pregnancy. This is due to hormonal changes in the body. A permissible reduction in the upper indices is a decrease of up to 10 mm Hg.and the lower ones - up to 15 units. Its minimum blood pressure in pregnant women generally reaches 22-24 weeks.
This reduction is not considered dangerous for the fetus, nor for the future mother. Meanwhile, fainting is a common symptom of hypotension in pregnant women. Loss of consciousness often leads to falls, which is a potential threat to the baby. Provoke a lowering of blood pressure can also dehydration, which in pregnant women is diagnosed quite often.
Classification of hypotension
Low blood pressure is divided into several types:
- Orthostatic lowering of blood pressure. Most often occurs with a sharp change in the position of the body( with a sharp rise), when the flow of blood to the extremities increases, and the heart rate does not increase. Characterized by concomitant attacks of dizziness, loss of coordination, in rare cases even consciousness. This type of hypotension is often found in pregnant women, despite the fact that the main group at risk of the disease is considered to be people of advanced age.
- Postprandial hypotension manifests itself in patients of the older age group after eating.
- Vegetosovascular dystonia is the most common type of hypotonic type disease. Such a decrease in pressure is observed in patients with hot weather, fatigue, stress, etc. The disease is often found in young people.
Today everyone should know what dangerous low pressure a person has. With a rapid heartbeat and pulse, it is difficult to pump blood through the vessels to the heart, which means that the supply of oxygen to the extremities and organs becomes insufficient. To normalize the pressure, you need to take a contrast shower and massage your body thoroughly with a special massage brush. It is not possible to get involved with such famous means from low pressure as coffee or chocolate: for a one-time relief this is an excellent solution, but if the reduction in arterial indices is regular, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
How to normalize low pressure?
The specialist will be able to confirm or exclude the diagnosis, appoint appropriate medications if necessary, and monitor the patient's condition. Self-medication can be dangerous for life.